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GREECE-THE HELLENIC DAWN.

retired into the northern districts of Southern Greece, then occupied by the Ionians. Them

he expelled, and then took possession of their country. The victory of the Heraclidae

being complete, they proceeded to divide among themselves and the Dorians the conquered

states of Peloponnesus. Oxylus, the AEtolian, received the kingdom of Elis. Temenus and

Crespbontes and the two sons of Aristodemus then drew lots for the three states of Sparta,

Argos, and Messenia. The first fell to the children of Aristodemus; Argos, to Temenus; and

Messenia to Cresphontes. Nor was there serious opposition on the part of the people of the

country. The Epeans, who were the primitive people of Elis, submitted after the death of

their king. Bands of AEtolians were brought into the country from the north of the gulf,

and from henceforth the new people were called Eleans. Temenus. secured Argos without

difficulty; and his sons soon enlarged the kingdom by conquering Troezenia, Epidauria,

Egina, and Sicyonia, thus extending the state of Argolis to the limits defined in a

preceding chapter. The state of Sparta was secured to the sons of Aristodemus by the

treachery of the Achaean Philonomus, who was rewarded with the sovereignty of Amyclae. The

towns of Sparta all submitted with the exception of Helos, whose people, the Helots, were

for their obstinacy reduced to servitude. Of them much will hereafter be said as the

servile class in Sparta. Melanthus, king of Messenia, gave up without a struggle, and

withdrew with a large part of his subjects into Attica.

A short time subsequent to these events the state of Corinth was also taken by the

Dorians. When the Heraclidae were about to embark from Naupactus, on their mission of

conquest, one of the leaders, named Hippotes, had killed a priest by the name of Camus,

and for this he was banished by the other sons of Heracles and forbidden to share with

them in the division of Peloponnesus. For ten years he was an exile; but after his death

his son, Aletes, revived his father's claims, marched into Corinth with a body of Dorians,

overthrew the dynasty of the Sisyphids, and took the kingdom. The original AEolian

inhabitants were banished from the country. Thus were the Heraclidae established as the

rulers of all Peloponnesus. But no date can yet be assigned for these legendary movements

of the Hellenic tribes.

The previous political condition of the country thus overrun by the Dorians may be briefly

noticed. Peloponnesus was, during the Heroic Age, the seat of those kingdoms from which

the most of the Greek chiefs were gathered for the conquest of Troy. That most ancient

city Mycenae, in Argolis, was the capital of Agamemnon, known as the "king of men." His

brother Menelaus was, at the same time, king of Sparta, and from him was his wife Helen,

the beautiful cause of the woes of the Greeks, taken away by the contrivance of Aphrodite

and the willingness of Paris. At the same time Argos was ruled by Diomedes, who bore so

heroic a part in the siege of Troy. Other princes held sway in different portions of the

country. The central mountainous region was inhabited-as it continued to be after the

Dorian conquest-by the Arcadians, a primitive race thought to have been the descendants of

the Pelasgians. The two principal towns of this region were Tegea and Mantinea. The rest

of the country was occupied with villages and rustic settlements, which, from their

seclusion, bore no active part in the history of Greece. Such was that condition of

affairs which was superseded by the establishment of the kingdoms of the Heraclidae in

Southern Hellas.

Meanwhile, other tribal movements had been precipitated by the invasion of the Dorians.

Many of the original inhabitants of Peloponnesus, driven from their homes by the

Heraclidae, sought refuge in foreign lands. The coasts of Asia Minor became the principal

resort of these fugitives and exiles. The first band was made of those Achaeans of

Peloponnesus, who, jostled from their native haunts on the Corinthian gulf, went first

into Boeotia. Then they were joined by others, principally of .the AEolian race, and soon

departed for new homes on the other side of the AEgean. They settled along the northern

coast of Asia Minor, taking possession of the islands of Lesbos and Tenedos; and here they