UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.
him; but he, discovering the plot, seized her and hung her in the clouds. She was haughty
and imperious. In the Trojan war she espoused the cause of the Greeks, and was regarded
as the chief source of the woes of Ilium. Her principal seats of worship were at Argos,
Samos, and Sparta. At the first named place was built her finest temple, and in this was
her colossal statue done in ivory and gold.
When the lots were cast for the sovereignty of the universe the sea fell to Poseidon, son
of Cronos and Rhea. He was not especially represented as inhabiting the waters, but rather
as having dominion over the movements of the great deep. His vice-regent, Nereus, lived in
the sea, just as Helios dwelt in the sun, while the destiny of the orb was controlled by
Phoebus Apollo. The meaning of the name of Poseidon is not certainly known, and from that
source nothing can be gathered of his nature. He is represented in the Iliad and Odyssey
as equal in dignity to Zeus, but inferior to him in power. To Poseidon was attributed a
part of the work of creation. He was said to be the maker of the horse. He was called the
"Keeper of the Earth," and the "World-Shaker"-titles indicative of almost Jovine majesty.
In one legend he disputes the sovereignty of Greek cities with Athena, Hera, and Helios.
As a rule he was loyal to Zeus, cheerfully conceding to him the supreme dominion; but in
one instance, at the instigation of Hera and Athena, he conspired to dethrone the king of
the gods, but the plot was revealed by Thetis; and the hundred-handed Briareus was placed
beside the throne to guard it against rebellions.
Poseidon had his palace in the deep waters near AEgae, on the shores of Euboea. Here he
kept his golden manned horses, which bore him swiftly in a sea chariot over the surface of
the deep. He controlled the ocean in time of storms, lest it should sweep the land from
its foundations and overwhelm the world. Unlike Zeus, Poseidon was subject to other wills
besides his own. He was sometimes compelled by the authority of his brother to do great
works for men. He it was who, together with Heracles, was obliged by the council of the
immortals to rebuild the walls of Troy for Laomedon, who refused to pay him for his
services. The god, incensed at this treatment, espoused the cause of Agamemnon and
Menelaus, and helped to wreak vengeance on the Trojans. But the most famous legend of
Poseidon is that in which he contends with Athena for the naming of Athens. Zeus decreed
that the name should be given