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462 UNIVERSAL HISTORY- THE ANCIENT WORLD.

became Apollo, and his dream was transformed into Psyche.

From the concurrence of such faculties as those possessed by the Greeks, certain kinds of

activity were inevitable. Native energy would lead to vigorous achievement. From the first

the Hellenes were adventurous. They tempted both land and sea. The voyage from one Cyclade

to another fed a hunger and nurtured an ambition. The ocean was something to be overcome.

Others, as well as they, desired possession. Hence war, struggle, victory, peace,

commerce, the .city, the state. Here the Greek found food. He planted himself in his

peninsula and islands. He made enterprise. He took advantage of the adventure of others.

He made nature his confederate. He filled his sails with her winds. He went abroad and

colonized. He sought the world's extreme. He established his dominion in another peninsula

in the Western seas, and called it Great Greece, as distinguished from his own. He

undertook the carrying-trade for the nations, and spoke his musical accents in the marts

of Babylon and Memphis and Carthage. He hired himself for gain to oriental despots whom he

despised, and transported their armies in his fleet. He became a cosmopolite, and learned

among the swarming millions of foreign lands the lesson of fearlessness. He believed--and

not without good reason-that a Greek spear and a Greek stratagem were more than Egyptian

cohorts, more than the hosts of Persia. He became self-confident in his activities,

arrogant in success, reckless even when his capital was in ashes and his family in exile.

He was dauntless, imperturbable, courageous even to the doors of desperation and death.

As to moral qualities, the Greeks were not so greatly preeminent above the other peoples

of antiquity. They had, like the Assyrians and the Romans, many of the robust virtues, but

it can not be said that the moral perceptions of the race were, in delicacy of discernment

between right and wrong, equal to the keenness of their intellectual faculties. The

morality of Greek social life was as high, perhaps higher than the age. Woman was still a

slave, but her condition in Greece was greatly preferable to that exhibited in any Eastern

civilization. The conditions of her life were much improved by the influence of Greek

institutions, and Greek motherhood and sisterhood were esteemed at something like their

true valuation. Nor was it possible in a country where freedom was the rule that love

should be absent or its fruit despised. The Hellenic family was maintained more by the

action of natural laws than by the influence of the commonwealth, and the altar of

domestic affection received its gifts from the hand of preference rather than from the

enforcement of duty. Still, this natural freedom was by no means destructive of sacred

ties, and although it was productive of much social immorality and abandonment, yet it

gave birth to such an array of genius within given limits of population as can not be

paralleled elsewhere in history.

Turning to the domain of ethics proper, and considering what may in general terms be

called the fountain of right, namely, adherence to truth and principle, the Greeks were by

no means above reproach. They had in this regard fewer of the heroic virtues than did the

Romans of the Republic. With the average Greek the rule was that the end justified the

means, and the majority adopted this rule without compunction. The natural disposition to

adopt intrigue and deception as legitimate instruments for the accomplishment of certain

results encroached in practice upon the better principles of action, to the extent of

making treachery in private life and perfidy in public affairs much too common for the

honor and reputation of the race. While, however, such was in general the ethical code of

the Greeks there were among them not a few philosophers and teachers who alike in their

instructions and examples were without doubt the best exponents of morality and personal

worth that the world has ever produced. The greatness of Socrates stands unchallenged. The

beauty and sublimity of his teachings have never been assailed except by bigots. The

luster of his life and the heroism of his death have cast a mellow light through the

centuries, and his steady belief in immortality has remained as the greatest protest of

the pagan