458 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.
perhaps impossible to determine. Be that as it may, the first formal developments of the
Greek race into organized communities took place on the coasts of Asia Minor, looking out
towards the Aegean. The people thus established flowed from the same source as did others
who occupied the Sporades, and the Cyclades, and finally the whole of peninsular Hellas.
All that may be certainly affirmed is that, regarding as Greek the whole community around
the Aegean sea, the eastern portions were settled first, the wave of population swelling
westward into Hellas proper and onward to the shores of the Ionian sea.
Leaving, then, the matter of the prehistoric migrations as undetermined, and taking up the
traditions of the Greeks regarding their ancestry, we have the well known legend of their
father HELLEN. He was the reputed son of Deucalion and Pyrrha. From him came all the
Hellenes. He had three sons, DORUS, XUTHUS, and AEOLUS, of whom the first and the last
gave their names to their descendants, the Dorians and Aeolians. Xuthus, like Joseph among
the Israelites, founded no tribe himself, but his two sons, ION and ACHAEUS, became the
head of the Ionians and the Achaeans. Thus by tradition we have an account rendered of the
four leading divisions of the Greek race. Nor was there ever any doubt among the Hellenes
themselves of the accuracy of this matter-of- fact genealogy, which they received from
their fathers. But the device of primitive nations in coining personal names as the
explanation of the beginnings of their nationality is now well understood, and the easy-
going story of Hellen and his sons signifies no more than that the Hellenes first awoke to
tribal consciousness at the foot of Mount Othrys, where Hellen, was said to have had his
home; and the migration of his sons from the borders of Thessaly simply implies an attempt
of some vigorous imagination to account for the presence in different parts of Greece of
the Dorians, AEolians, Ionians, and Achaeans.
The tradition goes on to elaborate. Aeolus succeeded his father in Thessaly. But his
multiplied descendants spread southward as far as the Isthmus of Corinth. Afterwards they
peopled the islands of Lesbos and Tenedos, and founded on the coast of Asia Minor a group
of cities known as the Aeolian Confederacy. Of their dialect Greek literature has
preserved but a few fragments, and these indicate an affinity with Doric rather than Attic
The race of Dorus appeared first in Macedonia, then made migrations, spread as far as the
island of Crete, where they founded Tetrapolis, and then into Peloponnesus, where they
became predominant in the three states of Argolis, Laconia, and Messenia. In manners and
life the Dorians were sedate, dignified, and grave as compared with the other peoples of
Greece, often displaying both in their deeds and institutions a severity in marked
contrast with the milder habits of the Ionians. They spoke a less refined dialect,
characterized by broad vowels and rough combinations of consonant sounds, and were a
people of rude address, little given to speech.
The Ionians were the maritime branch of the Hellenic race. They had their original seats
on the coast of Asia Minor, and from thence spread into the western islands. They were
predominant through- out the Aegean, and were, as indicated alike by tradition and
language, the oldest of the Greek tribes. The name of their reputed ancestor. Ion, seems
to be associated with the Hebrew Javan, the Persian Yauna, the Egyptian Uinim, and the
Indian Yonas-all names of mythical ancestors. It was these Ionian Greeks who at a very
early date became first the rivals and then the superiors of the Phoenicians in the
commerce of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean. It was they who spread all around the
shores of those waters, establishing colonies and trading posts at suitable stations, or
sometimes in the heart of great cities, as in Alexandria and Memphis. It was they who
constituted the body of that Greek population in the towns of Asia Minor, to whom
reference has many times been made in the history of the Persian Empire.
The ACHAEANS had their native seat in Thessaly. Of all the Greek stocks they were the
rudest. They were among the.