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458 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.

perhaps impossible to determine. Be that as it may, the first formal developments of the

Greek race into organized communities took place on the coasts of Asia Minor, looking out

towards the Aegean. The people thus established flowed from the same source as did others

who occupied the Sporades, and the Cyclades, and finally the whole of peninsular Hellas.

All that may be certainly affirmed is that, regarding as Greek the whole community around

the Aegean sea, the eastern portions were settled first, the wave of population swelling

westward into Hellas proper and onward to the shores of the Ionian sea.

Leaving, then, the matter of the prehistoric migrations as undetermined, and taking up the

traditions of the Greeks regarding their ancestry, we have the well known legend of their

father HELLEN. He was the reputed son of Deucalion and Pyrrha. From him came all the

Hellenes. He had three sons, DORUS, XUTHUS, and AEOLUS, of whom the first and the last

gave their names to their descendants, the Dorians and Aeolians. Xuthus, like Joseph among

the Israelites, founded no tribe himself, but his two sons, ION and ACHAEUS, became the

head of the Ionians and the Achaeans. Thus by tradition we have an account rendered of the

four leading divisions of the Greek race. Nor was there ever any doubt among the Hellenes

themselves of the accuracy of this matter-of- fact genealogy, which they received from

their fathers. But the device of primitive nations in coining personal names as the

explanation of the beginnings of their nationality is now well understood, and the easy-

going story of Hellen and his sons signifies no more than that the Hellenes first awoke to

tribal consciousness at the foot of Mount Othrys, where Hellen, was said to have had his

home; and the migration of his sons from the borders of Thessaly simply implies an attempt

of some vigorous imagination to account for the presence in different parts of Greece of

the Dorians, AEolians, Ionians, and Achaeans.

The tradition goes on to elaborate. Aeolus succeeded his father in Thessaly. But his

multiplied descendants spread southward as far as the Isthmus of Corinth. Afterwards they

peopled the islands of Lesbos and Tenedos, and founded on the coast of Asia Minor a group

of cities known as the Aeolian Confederacy. Of their dialect Greek literature has

preserved but a few fragments, and these indicate an affinity with Doric rather than Attic

Greek.

The race of Dorus appeared first in Macedonia, then made migrations, spread as far as the

island of Crete, where they founded Tetrapolis, and then into Peloponnesus, where they

became predominant in the three states of Argolis, Laconia, and Messenia. In manners and

life the Dorians were sedate, dignified, and grave as compared with the other peoples of

Greece, often displaying both in their deeds and institutions a severity in marked

contrast with the milder habits of the Ionians. They spoke a less refined dialect,

characterized by broad vowels and rough combinations of consonant sounds, and were a

people of rude address, little given to speech.

The Ionians were the maritime branch of the Hellenic race. They had their original seats

on the coast of Asia Minor, and from thence spread into the western islands. They were

predominant through- out the Aegean, and were, as indicated alike by tradition and

language, the oldest of the Greek tribes. The name of their reputed ancestor. Ion, seems

to be associated with the Hebrew Javan, the Persian Yauna, the Egyptian Uinim, and the

Indian Yonas-all names of mythical ancestors. It was these Ionian Greeks who at a very

early date became first the rivals and then the superiors of the Phoenicians in the

commerce of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean. It was they who spread all around the

shores of those waters, establishing colonies and trading posts at suitable stations, or

sometimes in the heart of great cities, as in Alexandria and Memphis. It was they who

constituted the body of that Greek population in the towns of Asia Minor, to whom

reference has many times been made in the history of the Persian Empire.

The ACHAEANS had their native seat in Thessaly. Of all the Greek stocks they were the

rudest. They were among the.