452 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.
Thermopylae, and stretches east and west from the Find us slope to the Aegean. The greater
part of the country is a plain, which, at its north-easternmost extremity, is broken by
the Vale of Tempo, celebrated from remote antiquity as one of the most lovely spots of
earth, a sylvan solitude, a chosen haunt of Apollo. The Thessalian plain was the largest
productive district in Greece, and was greatly prized for its agricultural resources. It
was thought by the inhabitants to have been in former times the bed of a lake, having its
outflow through the Peneus, whose sinking channel gradually drained it into the sea.
Thessaly was subdivided into four provinces, known by the names of Thessalaotis,
Hestiaeotis, Pelasgiotis, and Phthiotis- a division retained until a late date in Grecian
Epirus was in geographical position most remote, in extent second, and in character most
barbarous of all the states of Greece. It was bounded on the east by Pindus, on the north
by Illyria, on the west by the Ionian sea, and on the south by Aetolia, Acamania, and the
Ambracian gulf. Its two rivers were the Acheron and the Cocytus. The country was rugged
and less attractive than most of the other states, and was by the Greeks themselves
regarded as a kind of foreign region inhabited by people of another race. The things for
which Epirus was most noted was Dodona with her oaks and the ancient oracle of Jupiter;
Canope and Buthrotum, with their harbors; Ambracia, the capital of KingPyrrhus; and
Nicopolis, built by Augustus Caesar, in commemoration of his victory at Actium. The
Epirotes had some share in the stirring history of Greece, but are generally disparaged by
the Greek historians.
Passing into Central Greece, we find in the eastern half the states of Doris, Phocis,
Locris, Mails, Boeotia, Attica, and Megaris; and in the western half Acamania, Aetolia,
and Ozolian Locris. DORIS was in the heart of the country, and was the smallest state of
all Greece. It was bounded on the east by Phocis, on the south by Ozolian Locris, on the
west by Aetolia, and on the north by Malis. To the westward rose Mount Ceta. The whole
mountainous, and it was not in nature that it should contain a great civilization.
Nevertheless, the part which the Dorians played in Grecian history was sufficiently
conspicuous to make their country an object of interest.
The State of PHOCIS was bounded on the north by Locris, on the east by Boeotia, on the
south by the Corinthian gulf, and on the west by Ozolian Locris. Atone point it reached
the brine, in the channel of Euboea, and possessed the harbor of Daphnus. The surface of
the country is exceedingly mountainous, being traversed by the range of Parnassus. South
of this chain are several fertile districts, the most extensive being the plain of
Crissaea. The principal river is the Cephissus, which in a considerable part of its course
forms an exuberant valley. The most striking of the local interests which, during the
Grecian ascendancy, and indeed ever since, have attracted the attention of mankind, were
the city and oracle of DELPHI, the latter being the most famous seat of alleged
inspiration in the world.
LOCRIS, in the most ancient times, extended across the entire peninsula from the
Corinthian gulf to the strait of Euboea. By the encroachments of the Phocians and the
Dorians, however, the state was cut in two, the central part being appropriated by the
conquerors. The Locrians were thus confined to two narrow districts, both maritime; the
eastern or Locris proper, lying upon the strait, and the western or Ozolian Locris, being
on the Gulf of Corinth. The former extended along the coast from the Pass of Thermopylae
to the mouth of the Cephissus, and had the same general character as Phocis, which bounded
it on the south. The Ozolian Locris, bordering the gulf, was a rugged and somewhat barren
country, one of the poorest in Central Greece. The name Ozolae, or Stinkards, was given to
the people from the fetid odors of the sulphur springs which abounded in several parts.
The principal towns were Naupactus and Eupalium.
The small State of MALIS is sometimes omitted from the political geography of Greece, but
should be included. It lay immediately north of Doris, and at the