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Thermopylae, and stretches east and west from the Find us slope to the Aegean. The greater

part of the country is a plain, which, at its north-easternmost extremity, is broken by

the Vale of Tempo, celebrated from remote antiquity as one of the most lovely spots of

earth, a sylvan solitude, a chosen haunt of Apollo. The Thessalian plain was the largest

productive district in Greece, and was greatly prized for its agricultural resources. It

was thought by the inhabitants to have been in former times the bed of a lake, having its

outflow through the Peneus, whose sinking channel gradually drained it into the sea.

Thessaly was subdivided into four provinces, known by the names of Thessalaotis,

Hestiaeotis, Pelasgiotis, and Phthiotis- a division retained until a late date in Grecian


Epirus was in geographical position most remote, in extent second, and in character most

barbarous of all the states of Greece. It was bounded on the east by Pindus, on the north

by Illyria, on the west by the Ionian sea, and on the south by Aetolia, Acamania, and the

Ambracian gulf. Its two rivers were the Acheron and the Cocytus. The country was rugged

and less attractive than most of the other states, and was by the Greeks themselves

regarded as a kind of foreign region inhabited by people of another race. The things for

which Epirus was most noted was Dodona with her oaks and the ancient oracle of Jupiter;

Canope and Buthrotum, with their harbors; Ambracia, the capital of KingPyrrhus; and

Nicopolis, built by Augustus Caesar, in commemoration of his victory at Actium. The

Epirotes had some share in the stirring history of Greece, but are generally disparaged by

the Greek historians.

Passing into Central Greece, we find in the eastern half the states of Doris, Phocis,

Locris, Mails, Boeotia, Attica, and Megaris; and in the western half Acamania, Aetolia,

and Ozolian Locris. DORIS was in the heart of the country, and was the smallest state of

all Greece. It was bounded on the east by Phocis, on the south by Ozolian Locris, on the

west by Aetolia, and on the north by Malis. To the westward rose Mount Ceta. The whole

district was

mountainous, and it was not in nature that it should contain a great civilization.

Nevertheless, the part which the Dorians played in Grecian history was sufficiently

conspicuous to make their country an object of interest.

The State of PHOCIS was bounded on the north by Locris, on the east by Boeotia, on the

south by the Corinthian gulf, and on the west by Ozolian Locris. Atone point it reached

the brine, in the channel of Euboea, and possessed the harbor of Daphnus. The surface of

the country is exceedingly mountainous, being traversed by the range of Parnassus. South

of this chain are several fertile districts, the most extensive being the plain of

Crissaea. The principal river is the Cephissus, which in a considerable part of its course

forms an exuberant valley. The most striking of the local interests which, during the

Grecian ascendancy, and indeed ever since, have attracted the attention of mankind, were

the city and oracle of DELPHI, the latter being the most famous seat of alleged

inspiration in the world.

LOCRIS, in the most ancient times, extended across the entire peninsula from the

Corinthian gulf to the strait of Euboea. By the encroachments of the Phocians and the

Dorians, however, the state was cut in two, the central part being appropriated by the

conquerors. The Locrians were thus confined to two narrow districts, both maritime; the

eastern or Locris proper, lying upon the strait, and the western or Ozolian Locris, being

on the Gulf of Corinth. The former extended along the coast from the Pass of Thermopylae

to the mouth of the Cephissus, and had the same general character as Phocis, which bounded

it on the south. The Ozolian Locris, bordering the gulf, was a rugged and somewhat barren

country, one of the poorest in Central Greece. The name Ozolae, or Stinkards, was given to

the people from the fetid odors of the sulphur springs which abounded in several parts.

The principal towns were Naupactus and Eupalium.

The small State of MALIS is sometimes omitted from the political geography of Greece, but

should be included. It lay immediately north of Doris, and at the