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428 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.

Caesar in the Senate House. Parthia for the time was freed from all apprehension on the

side of Rome.

The reader of history will readily recall the dreadful civil war which followed the murder

of Julius. He will remember the struggle of the conspirators to undo the great historical

movement of the age. He will once more follow the complication which was presently cut

with the sword of the victor at Philippi. In this civil war the Parthians bore a minor

part. Bodies of Parthian horsemen were on several occasions found in the army of Brutus

and Cassius. Marcus Antonius, who had received the East for his portion of the world,

entered into relations with Orodes, and sought to join the king with himself in his war

with Brutus and Cassius. But the Parthian preferred the other course. At length the battle

of Philippi was fought, and the ancient aristocracy of Rome was hacked to pieces under the

bloody swords of the avengers of Caesar. Now it was that the three masters of the world

were able to divide their inheritance. The Second Triumvirate was formed. Octavianus

established himself in Italy. Lepidus became the cipher which made the other two figures

significant. Antonius found food for his passions in Egypt.

It appears that Parthia postponed her struggle with Rome to an inauspicious occasion.

Pacorus now availed himself of the help of the treacherous Labienus, recently envoy of

Brutus and Cassius at the Parthian court, and organized an army for the conquest of the

country as far as Antioch. They rushed to the field, and

Saxa, the Roman governor of Syria, was defeated in battle. Labienus and Pacorus, having

taken Antioch, led their forces, the one in the direction of Palestine, and the other into

Asia Minor. Both were for awhile successful. Hyrcanus, the king of Jerusalem, was

expelled, and his rival Antigonus set in his place under the authority of the Parthian

prince. Labienus carried his victorious arms through Pamphylia, Lycia, and Caria. Thus,

by the close of the year 40 B. C., nearly the whole of Asia Minor was overrun.

It was in the nature of Antonius to make love and war by turns. He was equally fierce in

the chamber and the field. Learning of the condition of affairs in the East, he was roused

to wrath, and resolved to teach the Asiatics a lesson not to be forgotten. In 39 B. C. he

sent forward his lieu- tenant Ventidius with orders to crush Labienus and the Parthians.

On his arrival in Asia, Labienus was taken by surprise, and was obliged to recede before

his enemy. Pacorus was called to the rescue, but both together failed to stay the pro-

Romans. Labienus was defeated pursued, taken, and put to death. The Parthians receded

into Northern Syria, and attempted to hold the pass of Mount Amanus, but Ventidius

succeeded in securing the place, and in driving the Parthiafts into Mesopotamia.

Pacorus, however, was not willing to relinquish the countries which he had so easily

conquered. In the following year he renewed the war by crossing the Euphrates, and

engaging in battle with the Romans. It was in the nature of that soldiery to learn from

the enemy. The method of Parthian warfare had now become well understood. Ventidius had

prepared for the emergency. It was no longer the story of Crassus on the Belik. When the

Parthians came on to battle, they found the Romans well posted to receive them. On rushing

to the charge, and before reaching their favorite distance