428 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.
Caesar in the Senate House. Parthia for the time was freed from all apprehension on the
side of Rome.
The reader of history will readily recall the dreadful civil war which followed the murder
of Julius. He will remember the struggle of the conspirators to undo the great historical
movement of the age. He will once more follow the complication which was presently cut
with the sword of the victor at Philippi. In this civil war the Parthians bore a minor
part. Bodies of Parthian horsemen were on several occasions found in the army of Brutus
and Cassius. Marcus Antonius, who had received the East for his portion of the world,
entered into relations with Orodes, and sought to join the king with himself in his war
with Brutus and Cassius. But the Parthian preferred the other course. At length the battle
of Philippi was fought, and the ancient aristocracy of Rome was hacked to pieces under the
bloody swords of the avengers of Caesar. Now it was that the three masters of the world
were able to divide their inheritance. The Second Triumvirate was formed. Octavianus
established himself in Italy. Lepidus became the cipher which made the other two figures
significant. Antonius found food for his passions in Egypt.
It appears that Parthia postponed her struggle with Rome to an inauspicious occasion.
Pacorus now availed himself of the help of the treacherous Labienus, recently envoy of
Brutus and Cassius at the Parthian court, and organized an army for the conquest of the
country as far as Antioch. They rushed to the field, and
Saxa, the Roman governor of Syria, was defeated in battle. Labienus and Pacorus, having
taken Antioch, led their forces, the one in the direction of Palestine, and the other into
Asia Minor. Both were for awhile successful. Hyrcanus, the king of Jerusalem, was
expelled, and his rival Antigonus set in his place under the authority of the Parthian
prince. Labienus carried his victorious arms through Pamphylia, Lycia, and Caria. Thus,
by the close of the year 40 B. C., nearly the whole of Asia Minor was overrun.
It was in the nature of Antonius to make love and war by turns. He was equally fierce in
the chamber and the field. Learning of the condition of affairs in the East, he was roused
to wrath, and resolved to teach the Asiatics a lesson not to be forgotten. In 39 B. C. he
sent forward his lieu- tenant Ventidius with orders to crush Labienus and the Parthians.
On his arrival in Asia, Labienus was taken by surprise, and was obliged to recede before
his enemy. Pacorus was called to the rescue, but both together failed to stay the pro-
Romans. Labienus was defeated pursued, taken, and put to death. The Parthians receded
into Northern Syria, and attempted to hold the pass of Mount Amanus, but Ventidius
succeeded in securing the place, and in driving the Parthiafts into Mesopotamia.
Pacorus, however, was not willing to relinquish the countries which he had so easily
conquered. In the following year he renewed the war by crossing the Euphrates, and
engaging in battle with the Romans. It was in the nature of that soldiery to learn from
the enemy. The method of Parthian warfare had now become well understood. Ventidius had
prepared for the emergency. It was no longer the story of Crassus on the Belik. When the
Parthians came on to battle, they found the Romans well posted to receive them. On rushing
to the charge, and before reaching their favorite distance