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417 PARTHIA.-CIVIL AND MILITARY ANNALS.

and daughter of his adversary. The rapid restoration of Parthian authority ensued in all

those parts of the country which had been overawed by the Syrians. The Parthian king made

strenuous efforts to overtake and bring back Demetrius, hoping thus to secure all the

Seleucid princes, and thus perhaps extinguish the Dynasty. But Demetrius had already fled

beyond his reach, and could not be retaken.

As to the Syrian monarchy an additional disaster was in waiting. No sooner was it known in

Judaea that Antiochus was slain than the people rose against their masters and achieved

their independence. The kings of Antioch, in the remaining sixty- three years of their

power, were not able again to subdue the? Jews, and Palestine remained an independency

until the scepter of Rome was passed over the countries east of the Mediterranean.

Notwithstanding the great advantages of victory, Phraates found serious obstacles in his

path. An enemy, not indeed so numerous, but far more terrible in war than the Syrians,

rose on the opposite borders of the Empire. For several generations the Scythians had been

in league with the Parthians. The old-time kinship and affinity of the two peoples have

been more than once referred to in the preceding pages. Friendship existed, and common

cause was" frequently made by the Scyths with the people and king of Parthia. When

Antiochus Sidetes, the late invader, came into Babylonia with his army, Phraates had

solicited the aid of the Scythians, and a great body of the wild warriors had accepted the

call. They set out on their march to join Phraates, but did not succeed in doing so until

after the defeat and destruction of the Syrian army. Then, forsooth, Phraates had no

further use for the Scyths or for their belated offers of aid. The Northern warriors then

demanded their pay, and when this was refused they turned about and began to take by

ravage in the districts of Parthia a liberal compensation for their alleged services.

Against these disturbers of his Empire Phraates was now obliged to turn about from the

scene of his great victory. He had meanwhile forgiven the Greek cities,

and had accepted from them a contingent of soldiers. He had. also incorporated with his

own army the prisoners whom he had taken from Antiochus. There was thus a considerable

division of his forces made up of foreign elements. With this army he advanced against the

Scyths, and came to battle. In the midst of the conflict the Greeks, on the Parthian side,

treacherously rose against their general and went over to the Scythians. The Parthians,

thus weakened by defection, were routed and swept from the battle field, Phraates himself

being among the slain.

Had the Scythians possessed the instincts of conquest and reorganization, they might now,

to all appearances, have gone forward to the overthrow of the Empire; but their method was

simply the method of plunder. As for the Greeks, by whose aid the victory had been

achieved, finding themselves suddenly liberated from military captivity, they broke up and

rolled away towards the West, recovering as best they might their homes in Mesopotamia and

Syria. The reign had been brief, extending only to the year B. C. 127. Nor might it be

claimed that the Empire had, on the whole, been improved or strengthened by the agency and

valor of the sixth of the Arsacid kings.

Phraates at the time of his death was still a young man. It appears that he left no son to

succeed him. At any rate the crown was transferred to his uncle, ARTABANUS II. The latter,

on coming to power, had to face the most serious responsibilities. The victorious

Scythians and their Greek auxiliaries were still in the heart of Parthia. The native army

had been almost destroyed. At the same time serious difficulties arose on the side of

Babylonia. The satrap of this country had by his oppressions goaded the people into

rebellion and war. But the clouded aspect of affairs soon gave place to a clearer sky. The

Greeks, as we have seen, were more anxious to escape from the country than to continue the

conflict. As for the Scythians, they in all ages were satisfied to stuff themselves with

coarse food, to heat their blood with strong drinks, and to enjoy the ineffable sleep of

barbarism. In