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and compelling him and his successors to accept henceforth the restricted region adjacent

to Upper India. Thus between the years B.C. 163 and 140 were the widely extended countries

of South-western Asia restored by revolt and war to Asiatic domination. The drama as a

whole was virtually a restoration of the Persian Empire under the auspices of Parthia. Of

the extent and character of the Imperial territories we have already given an account in

the first chapter of the present Book. The Imperial domain now consisted of at least

twelve provinces, and embraced an area but little less than five hundred thousand square

miles in extent. It only remained for Mithridates to consolidate, organize, and defend the

countries and nations that had fallen under his sway.

As for foreign violence, little was to be feared except from the side of the kingdom of

Syria. Doubtless the reigning princes at Antioch had been deterred for nearly a quarter of

a century from invading the East by the distractions of the West. Doubtless the news of

Eastern rebellions, wars, conquests, and transformations smote dismally on the ears of the

Syrian kings. Doubtless the loss of their revenues was to them a source of extreme

annoyance and discomfort. But the struggles of the rulers around the eastern shores of the

Mediterranean, from the Libyan desert to the Grecian archipelago, were sufficient to keep

the Syrian monarchs from any effort at the recovery of their provinces. We have seen how

the Regent Lysias and The teacher Philip contended for the mastery of the government and

the young king of Antioch; how Demetrius Soter came from Rome and took the kingdom, and

how Syria was obliged to contend with Egypt for the recovery of the territory given away

with the first Cleopatra.

At length the crown of what remained of the Syrian monarchy descended to Demetrius II, a

prince not without ambition. Reaching a lull in the Western wars he cast his eyes to the

East, and about the year 160 B. C. planned an expedition for the recovery of the fortunes

of his house by war. Mithridates had not found everything conformable to his will in the

administration of the new Empire. Among the

conquered Bactrians there were mutterings, discontent, incipient rebellions. In all the

countries which he had conquered were Greek cities planted either by Alexander himself or

by his successors. These seats of power and influence had been built up by immigration

from Europe. Thither had come thousands of Greeks and Macedonians from the European

mainland, from the archipelago, and from Asia Minor. These had increased, multiplied,

expanded. They had become the intellectual class throughout all South-western Asia. They

had taken, in marriage or in illicit relations, the choice princesses of the Asiatics.

There had thus appeared a large and influential Graeco-Asiatic element in the population.

On the whole, the sympathies of this class were hostile to the Parthian ascendancy.

Through a hundred and seventy years the Seleucid kings had held sway, real or nominal,

over the countries this side of India. Even the Asiatics, pure and simple, had become at

last accustomed to the European and Syrian dominations. All of these conditions,

sympathies, and tendencies had to be overcome and reversed by Mithridates before his

Imperial rule could be accepted with cordiality by the diverse peoples whom he had


It thus came to pass that when Demetrius II entered upon his war with Parthia, lie was

assisted somewhat by the social and political condition of Asia. He began his campaign

under favorable auspices, making his way first into Babylonia, where he received the

submission of the country. It will be understood by the reader that the peoples of these

Asiatic dominions had little choice among their masters. They could therefore be delivered

from hand to hand as merchandise of the mart. But Demetrius now began to encounter

opposition. The Bactrian cavalry was in his front. He was able, however, to continue his

advance and to win several battles beyond the Mesopotamian rivers. Elymai's was overrun

and temporarily recovered to the Syrian monarchy. Other districts were retaken, and

Mithridates found himself receding before the superior forces of his enemy. It appears

that at this time, if we are to