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4OO UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.

eastward the aggressive societies and institutions of the West.

The men of the Alexandrian epoch found it so; Perhaps no valid reason could have been

assigned by Seleucus for yielding his vantage on the banks of the Tigris and transferring

his seat of government to Antioch, in the Valley of the Orontes. Whatever may have been

his motive, the policy was fatal to the maintenance of a European dominion in South-

western Asia. The king. By the removal, reassociated himself with the contentious and

contending successors of Alexander in Macedonia, Egypt, and Asia Minor. He was at once

reinvolved with them in those wars which were destined to continue until the Mistress of

the World should, from her seat on the Tiber, stretch out her scepter over all.

But we are here concerned rather with the actual course of events than with speculative

views concerning them. The withdrawal of the capital of the East from Seleucia to Antioch

left the Asiatic nations without the visible presence of the master. It left them to the

suggestion of conspiracy, revolt, and independence. Worst of all, it left them to the

domination of corrupt satraps, who resumed the manners and methods of the past, extorting

from the subject peoples whatever might be gained by excess and tyranny.

For Seleucus had in the meantime committed another administrative error, which must sooner

or later lose him all his Eastern provinces. Alexander had, against the prejudices of his

own countrymen adopted the policy of uniting the ruling classes and native princes of the

East with himself. He had encouraged to a great extent among his officers and men the

formation of marriage unions and other alliances by which the conquered peoples might come

to regard their interests as identified with those of the Conqueror. He had deliberately

called to his aid the princes of the subject Asiatic provinces, reappointed them to their

places, conferred honors upon them, and made them secure under his authority. While this

policy had left behind much bitterness on the part of the adventurers who had hoped to

revel in all the spoils of conquest-while it had in many instances alienated the home

Government of Macedonia-it had nevertheless secured to the Conqueror the confidence of

peoples and races whom he could not otherwise have bound sincerely to his interests.

At the first his successors followed in a feeble and uncertain way the policy of their

great leader. But their weakness and cupidity soon prevailed, and they began to promote

Europeans in the place of native princes. This method was fatally adopted by Seleucus on

his withdrawal to Antioch. He set Greeks in authority over the Asiatics, as if to say that

his security in the East depended upon Euro-