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374 'UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD,

armies met on the banks of the Pinarus, but the battle takes its name from Issus.

The conflict was begun by Alexander. From the beginning it was seen that the Persians

feared the long spears of the Macedonians; but the cavalry of Darius fought with great

bravery, as did also the Greek mercenaries in the right wing of the army. Alexander

himself, with the right and the right center, charged the Persian infantry in his front

and routed them with great slaughter. The cavalry, seeing the defeat of the foot, also

broke into flight, and the Greek auxiliaries were beaten down. The result way a complete

and overwhelming victory for Alexander, who now grew confident of his ability to take the

Persian Empire with a Macedonian phalanx. The losses of Darius in the battle of Issus have

been placed as high as one hundred thousand men, while that of the Macedonians amounted to

no more than nine hundred and fifty in killed and wounded! To this disparity must be added

the loss of the king's mother, wife, and sister, who were captured by Alexander.

The contest, however, was not yet decided. The resources of the Empire were so vast as not

to be exhausted by a single overthrow. It was, moreover, Alexander's plan, as soon as he

had inflicted a signal defeat upon the main army of Persia, to turn about into Phoenicia

and reduce that country and Egypt before proceeding to Babylon. He thus purposed, by

bringing all the countries from Syria to Libya under his sway, to leave no disturbing

elements behind him when he should continue his march to the East. The great conquests of

the son of Philip in the countries skirting the Mediterranean, his triumphant progress to

the south-west, his penetration to the Oasis of Arnun, and his return into Asia Minor

preparatory to his final struggle with Darius, will be properly considered in the history

of the Macedonian ascendancy. These movements occupied a period of twenty months, so that

the summer of B. C. 331 arrived before the conflict was renewed for the dominion of Asia.

In the meantime the Persian king made great preparations for the renewal of hostilities.

First, however, he tried what negotiation could accomplish by sending two embassies to the

conqueror. TO the first, which requested peace and the surrender of the king's family, now

held prisoners, Alexander replied haughtily, demanding either an abdication of Darius in

his favor or else that the monarch would come forth and fight it out. To the other

proposition which was made to the Macedonian while he was engaged in the siege of Tyre,

and which embraced the giving of ten thousand talents for the restitution of the royal

family, the surrender to Alexander of all the countries west of the Euphrates, and his

reception of Statira, the king's daughter, in marriage, he answered still more

contemptuously. The countries were his already. When he wanted the ten thou- sand talents

he would take them. If he desired to marry the daughter of Darius he would do so as soon

as he pleased. The Persian was a fool to offer him what he already possessed. So it only

remained to fight and-be beaten.

The whole Empire was laid under contribution for the final conflict. Twenty-five nations

furnished large contingents of troops. More than a million of men were gathered under the

king's standards. For once a field of battle was deliberately selected. In the heart of

ancient Assyria, about thirty miles from Nineveh, in a vast plain as level as the lowlands

of Mesopotamia, in every way adapted for the advantageous operations of a great mass of

men, and especially for the evolutions of the scythe-bearing war-chariots, Darius

marshaled his hosts. The plain was improved with special respect to the battle. Every

impediment was taken away. Finally, in all that quarter from which the Macedonian cavalry

must make their charge, the ground was sown with spiked balls of iron to cripple the

enemy's horses. Such was the field of ARBELA.

On came Alexander from his campaign in Egypt. He advanced through Syria, crossed the

Euphrates, traversed Mesopotamia, and entered Assyria without resistance. It was now

October of B. C.331. Darius carefully occupied his chosen posi-