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Hellespontine Greeks were organized in the pay of Persia, and were put under the command

of Memnon of Rhodes, an able general.

By these measures some brief advantages were gained on the Hellespont, nor, for the time,

did the movements of Alexander excite serious apprehensions. So in the beginning of his

expedition, in the spring of B. C. 334, his passage into Asia was not disputed. His force

consisted of thirty thousand foot and five thousand horse. With this small but compact and

well- disciplined army he advanced to Mysia without opposition. The Persians were first

arrayed in his pathway at the GRANICUS, a small stream between Abydos and Dascyleium. With

forty thousand men advantageously posted on the opposite bank they awaited the coming of

the Macedonian, who gladly caught a first sight of his Asiatic adversaries, and

immediately charged through the stream and up the bank in the face of the enemy. The

battle was stubbornly contested, especially by the Greek mercenaries in the Persian army.

But the Macedonians carried the field, slaying more than one-half of the whole opposing

force. Alexander himself displayed an almost reckless daring, and was slightly wounded in

the battle. The Macedonian dead numbered scarcely more than a hundred.

All of Asia Minor now lay open to the conqueror. Lydia, lonia; Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia,

Pisidia, and Phrygia were successively overrun, and all of the great cities from Miletus

to Gordium fell into his hands. At the last named city he established his winter-quarters

and awaited the coming of spring. A single campaign had laid Asia Minor at his feet.

Meanwhile, Memnon, the general upon whom Darius chiefly depended, died, and the king was

driven to act merely on the defensive. He determined, however, to meet his antagonist well

to the west, and organized a vast army of nearly a half- million of men. At the head of

this force, in the spring of B. C. 333, the king set out from Babylon, advanced first to

Sochi, and thence to Issus, on the gulf of the same name. He thus attained a position

somewhat in Alexander's rear; for the latter had been sick at Tarsus, and was unable to

act with celerity in the early season. Nevertheless, he immediately, on hearing the place

of his adversary, turned about and advanced upon him. In November the two