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371 PERSIA-CIVIL AND MILITARY ANNALS.

time Nectanebo was routed in a series of battles, and was finally driven into Ethiopia.

Sidon was also besieged. All who came out to ask for terms were put to death. Finally, in

the wretchedness of despair, the remaining forty thousand people set fire to their own

houses and perished in the flames. Ochus coolly sold the ashes of the city to a company of

adventurers, who hoped to gather from the ruin the gold and ornaments of the people. Such

was the vindictive energy and relentless severity of Ochus that the terror of his name

spread throughout the Empire and raised the king to the pinnacle of autocratic power.

Rebellions, for the time, became few and far between.

It was at this epoch in the history of Persia that her attention was first directed to

MACEDONIA. That state was rapidly rising to influence in the West, and the king directed

his governors to take steps to check her progress. An army was sent into Thrace, in B. C.

340, to help to sustain the independence of that kingdom against the Macedonians, and

succor was given to the people of Perinthus, then besieged by Philip. But the career of

Ochus was near an end. In B. C. 338 he was poisoned by a conspirator named Bogoas, who set

up ARSES, one of the king's sons, and slew all the rest-thus hoping to be virtually

monarch himself. But very soon Arses began to show signs of restiveness and courage, and

he and his children were all in turn assassinated. Bogoas, who thus acquired a kind of

character of king-maker, next elevated CODOMANUS, a remote member of the royal house, to

the throne. He took to himself the title of DARIUS. In this same year (B. C. 336), Philip

of Macedon was assassinated by Pausanias, and the crown of that country descended to the

youthful ALEXANDER. Thus, at the same time, in two distant countries, were established in

power two foemen who should presently contend for the mastery of the world.

The story of the growth of the Macedonian power and the hurling of that power like a

thunderbolt upon the effete kingdoms of Mesopotamia will be fully narrated in the Eighth

Book. For the present it may suffice to recount from the Persian side the tragic end of

the great Empire of the Achaemenians. Personally considered, Darius Codomanus was one of

the best of the whole line of kings who swayed the destinies of his country. His

appearance on the stage, however, was at an epoch when fate was against him. At the very

time of his accession a division of the Macedonian army had already been landed by Philip

on the Asiatic coast. But for the death of the king of Macedonia the disasters of Persia

must have sooner come, nor borne less heavily. The assassination of Philip gave a brief

respite to Darius, who, however, little improved the interval with measures to repel the

threatened invasion. It was doubted whether the youthful Alexander could even maintain

himself in Europe, to say nothing of an Asiatic con- quest. But when it was seen that a

greater than Philip was come, then the king made such preparations as he could to stop the

avalanche. A numerous fleet was manned and equipped. Large bodies of troops were sent from

beyond the Euphrates to the frontiers of Asia Minor. Mercenaries were hired. Agents were

dispatched into the Greek states to stir up revolts. The