371 PERSIA-CIVIL AND MILITARY ANNALS.
time Nectanebo was routed in a series of battles, and was finally driven into Ethiopia.
Sidon was also besieged. All who came out to ask for terms were put to death. Finally, in
the wretchedness of despair, the remaining forty thousand people set fire to their own
houses and perished in the flames. Ochus coolly sold the ashes of the city to a company of
adventurers, who hoped to gather from the ruin the gold and ornaments of the people. Such
was the vindictive energy and relentless severity of Ochus that the terror of his name
spread throughout the Empire and raised the king to the pinnacle of autocratic power.
Rebellions, for the time, became few and far between.
It was at this epoch in the history of Persia that her attention was first directed to
MACEDONIA. That state was rapidly rising to influence in the West, and the king directed
his governors to take steps to check her progress. An army was sent into Thrace, in B. C.
340, to help to sustain the independence of that kingdom against the Macedonians, and
succor was given to the people of Perinthus, then besieged by Philip. But the career of
Ochus was near an end. In B. C. 338 he was poisoned by a conspirator named Bogoas, who set
up ARSES, one of the king's sons, and slew all the rest-thus hoping to be virtually
monarch himself. But very soon Arses began to show signs of restiveness and courage, and
he and his children were all in turn assassinated. Bogoas, who thus acquired a kind of
character of king-maker, next elevated CODOMANUS, a remote member of the royal house, to
the throne. He took to himself the title of DARIUS. In this same year (B. C. 336), Philip
of Macedon was assassinated by Pausanias, and the crown of that country descended to the
youthful ALEXANDER. Thus, at the same time, in two distant countries, were established in
power two foemen who should presently contend for the mastery of the world.
The story of the growth of the Macedonian power and the hurling of that power like a
thunderbolt upon the effete kingdoms of Mesopotamia will be fully narrated in the Eighth
Book. For the present it may suffice to recount from the Persian side the tragic end of
the great Empire of the Achaemenians. Personally considered, Darius Codomanus was one of
the best of the whole line of kings who swayed the destinies of his country. His
appearance on the stage, however, was at an epoch when fate was against him. At the very
time of his accession a division of the Macedonian army had already been landed by Philip
on the Asiatic coast. But for the death of the king of Macedonia the disasters of Persia
must have sooner come, nor borne less heavily. The assassination of Philip gave a brief
respite to Darius, who, however, little improved the interval with measures to repel the
threatened invasion. It was doubted whether the youthful Alexander could even maintain
himself in Europe, to say nothing of an Asiatic con- quest. But when it was seen that a
greater than Philip was come, then the king made such preparations as he could to stop the
avalanche. A numerous fleet was manned and equipped. Large bodies of troops were sent from
beyond the Euphrates to the frontiers of Asia Minor. Mercenaries were hired. Agents were
dispatched into the Greek states to stir up revolts. The