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324 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.

be had in the Empire. The palace front was to the north-west, looking to the distant

mountains of Luristan. The royal edifice erected here by Darius was, so far as has been

determined by the few remains and by the references of the Greek historians, almost an

exact duplicate of the palace of Persepolis.

As already said, the architectural works of the Persians which, next after their palaces,

have been considered most worthy of note were the tombs of the kings. Eight of these royal

sepulchers have been examined. They are found to be of two kinds; the one being a

structure built in an open space, and the other an ornamented chamber carved in the native

rock of the hillside. By far the most conspicuous work of the first class is the

celebrated tomb of Cyrus. It is situated near Pasargadae in a rectangular area now covered

with broken pillars, of which there were originally twenty-four. The tomb proper consists

of a basement of marble in the form of a pyramid. The lower layer of slabs measures on one

side forty-seven and on the other forty-three feet. The pyramid rises to the summit in

seven contracted squares, the upper area measuring over twenty feet on each side. Upon the

platform thus formed was reared a marble chamber almost exactly the shape of a common

house of today, having a double sloping roof of marble slabs. The door was in the middle

of the end. The inner cell or tomb was eleven feet in length by seven feet in each of its

other dimensions. There is little doubt that within this marble crypt, in a coffin of

gold, the founder of the Persian Empire was laid in his last resting-place.

The rock-tombs-those carved in the hill-sides-are more elaborate by far than the one just

described. Four of this kind have been discovered in the face of the mountains skirting

the valley of the Pulwar, and three have been found in the vicinity of Persepolis. The

hill-front selected by the builders was first hewn to a smooth surface. This was then

divided into three horizontal sections, the central one being much broader than the lower

and upper ones. The lower section remained without ornamentation, being simply hewn plain

with definite outlines. The middle section, corresponding to the transverse arm of a Greek

cross, contained the tomb proper. The front of this section was adorned with a row of

columns, between which the stone was cut away, forming chambers in the hill. In the center

a deeper recess was carved, intended to receive the body of the dead. The upper section

was highly ornamented, being a kind of architrave covered with allegorical figures, and

generally representing in its upper part the king himself in the act of worshiping Ormazd.

Such is the character of the great tomb of Darius Hystaspis, near Persepolis.

A short distance from this royal burying- ground stood an edifice the meaning of which has

not been determined. This is a square tower built of blocks of marble. The height of the

building is thirty-six feet. The ground plan is a square, measuring twenty-four feet on,

each side. The corners were ornamented, with pilasters, and the faces with niches. In the

middle of the north side was a doorway looking towards the tombs. The door leads into a

square chamber, which reaches from the level of the entrance to the top of the tower, and

is covered with a roof.

Taken all in all, the architecture of the Persians was simple and grand. There