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323 PERSIA-ARTS AND SCIENCES.

thirty-six pillars, arranged in rows of six. On three of the sides of this principal space

were magnificent porticoes, each being one hundred and forty-two feet long by thirty feet

in breadth. The structure of these was also columnar, each porch being supported by twelve

pillars, placed in rows of six, to correspond with those of the main edifice. The seventy-

two columns, thirty- six of which stood in the principal square and the remainder in the

porticoes, were all sixty-four feet in height. Many of them are still erect, and, with the

exception of displaced capitals, present, after the dilapidations of twenty-two hundred

years, almost the original appearance. The capitals are of two varieties. The first style

consists of two half-griffins facing in opposite directions, or of two bull's heads

arranged in the same manner. The other style is more complex, consisting of three parts.

The first, which rests on the head of the column, is a lotus-bud; the second, a system of

volutes, set perpendicularly; and the third the bulls-head cap already described. The

bases of the pillars are bell-shaped, and are for beauty unsurpassed by any in the world.

The ornamentation consists of a system of lotus-leaves depending. The columns themselves

taper gently to the top, and are fluted through their entire length, the number of

flutings being forty-eight or fifty-two in each pillar.

The other palaces, to which reference has already been made, were found at Pasargadae, the

ancient capital, at the city of Istakr, and at Susa. Pasargadae was the city of Cyrus the

Great, and nearly all the ruins discovered at that place (now the town of Murgab)

perpetuate in some way his name and deeds. The monuments found here are the most ancient

in all Persia, and represent the beginnings of that style of palatial structure which

gained its full development at Persepolis. The largest single ruin at Pasargadae presents

a ground plan one hundred and forty-seven feet in length and one hundred and sixteen feet

in width. This space was surrounded by a massive wall, in the four sides of which were

huge stone doors. On the facing of each portal is this legend: "I AM CYRUS,

THE KING, THE ACHAMENIAN." The building within the inclosure was columnar, though all of

the pillars, except a single one, have fallen. This remaining shaft has a height of

thirty-six feet. It is a column perfectly plain, with a diameter of three feet and four

inches at the base. The stumps of seven of the other pillars remain on the pavement, and

these are arranged in rows so as to indicate an oblong structure. In a smaller building of

similar style, found at no great distance, the bases of twelve columns have been found as

they were originally placed. Besides these ruins the remains of a square tower have been

found at Murgab. The structure is of hewn stone, built with great solidity, having

projecting corners and a height of forty- two feet. Not far distant is a fourth and last

foundation, composed of solid stone carefully dressed and laid immovably in horizontal

courses. Some of the facing stones are as much as ten feet in length, and are put into

place with artistic exact- ness. The structure is said by antiquarians to bear a

remarkable resemblance to the basement of the Jewish temple at Jerusalem.

At the town of Istakr have been discovered the remains of a ruined palace, dating back to

the times of the Achaemenians. The ground plan of the edifice has not been determined. One

standing column and the bases of eight others have been found in their original places.

Parts of the walls have also been traced by the curious and certain features of the

building made out with sufficient clearness to show that the palace was in its

architecture of a later date. than the edifices of Pasargadae. The fluted columns, massive

portals, and thick walls are more like those of Persepolis than those of the ancient

capital.

The great palace at Susa, one of the residences of the Persian kings, was built by Darius

Hystaspis and afterwards restored by Artaxerxes Longimanus. The site selected was the old

rectangular platform of unburnt bricks, which from the earliest times had supported the

royal abodes of the kings of Susiana. The view from this summit was one of the most

beautiful to