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condition of receiving its name, but this was refused, and the Ephesians themselves

undertook the task of restoration, which was not completed for two hundred and twenty


The temple of Diana was the chief glory of the city. The style was Grecian. The length of

the ground-plan was four hundred and twenty-five feet and the breadth two hundred and

twenty feet. The structure was thus four times as large as the Parthenon at Athens. The

statue of the goddess was one of the finest works of art ever produced. It was wrought of

ivory and gold, and was a marvel of costliness and beauty. The temple was decorated with

sculptures by Praxiteles and one of the masterpieces of Apelles. A representation of the

temple was stamped on the coins and medals of the city. Next among the wonders of Ephesus

was the great theater, of which a good portion has been exhumed, and is still well

preserved. It was a vast circle of stone rising seat on seat. Until the capacity was

sufficient to accommodate fifty thousand persons.

In the course of the preceding histories of Egypt, Chaldaea, Assyria, Media, Babylonia,

and in the present Book on Persia, a pretty full delineation of the race-character of the

peoples of Western Asia and the northern parts of Africa has been attempted. Sketches of

considerable length, have also been presented of those fundamental facts in geography and

climate upon which the dispositions and genius of nations are so largely based. A summary

of the prevalent animals and plants and fruits of the various countries has been given to

the end that a just estimate may be made of the means of subsistence and the manner of

life in those ancient times when relations of man with the animal kingdom were so much

more vital than they are today. Descriptions also have been presented, some brief, some

more ample, of the leading cities of antiquity, those vast aggregations of humanity which,

because of the absence of a vigorous and intelligent country populace, in reality

constituted the ancient state. It will not, therefore, be necessary hereafter to refer so

often or so extensively to the above-mentioned primary facts in civilization, but rather

to give a larger relative importance to the actual movements of human society, taking it

for granted that the ethnic, geographical, and climatic conditions and surroundings of the

people under review are sufficiently understood. In entering upon the history of the

Greeks and Romans it will again be desirable to note the external conditions by which

these peoples and the other races of Europe have been affected in habits, manners, and