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tudes of captives, who sank at once to the level of a servile class. These hordes of

driven creatures furnished at a trifling cost an unlimited supply o{ labor. The

Babylonians were thus relieved from oppression, and found time to build and to banquet.

There were thus afforded those limitless resources out of which arose the otherwise

inconceivable wonders of Babylon. The conquered provinces were in a measure depopulated,

in order that by deportation and colonization in and around Babylon all further danger of

provincial insurrections might be removed, and at the same time an exhaustless supply of

slave labor be furnished to meet the demands of the splendid capital, led and. incited by

imperial caprice.

Thus were begun and executed the principal monuments of Babylonian greatness: for most of

these wonders belong to the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. It was the captive Jews, Egyptians,

Phoenicians, Syrians, and Moabites-swept hitherward in the wake of the victorious armies

of the Empire-who for the most part reared those stupendous masses of masonry which even

today in ruins break here and there the horizon of the Babylonian plain as if with the

shoulders of a mountain. Now it was that the incomparable Walls of Babylon, with their

more than five hundred million cubic feet of solid masonry, were raised in massive

grandeur around a circumference of forty-one miles. Now it was that the Hanging Gardens

arose for the delight of