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288 UNIVERSAL HISTORY--THE ANCIENT WORLD.

and assembled in the north with the remnants of the native tribes to punish those who had

made an alliance with the invader. Jabin the so-called "king" of Canaan, was leader of

the confederacy against which Joshua mustered his forces at Beth-horon. Decisive battles

were fought at this place, and shortly afterwards at Merom, in both of which Joshua

completely overthrew and dispersed his enemies. The country of Palestine was peaceably

divided among the remaining ten and a half tribes of Israel. 1 The tribes of Reuben and

Gad and half the tribe of Manasseh had already received their chosen portion east of the

Jordan. The first period of Jewish history extends from the time of the conquest of

Canaan, B. C. 1350, to the establishment of the monarchy under Saul, B. C. 1095. The

government of Israel during this period was a theocracy. Moses had been a lawgiver

1 It will be remembered that the twelve sons of Jacob became the progenitors of the

thirteen tribes of Israel. The two sons of Joseph-Ephraim and Manasseh -inherited equally

with their uncles. When the tribe of Levi was set apart for the service of the sanctuary,

the number of tribes inheriting lands (for the Levites had none) was again reduced to

twelve.

and leader. After him Joshua, the general, gave-the people peace by war. After him a

series of rulers arose known as Judges, for they "judged Israel." Many of these were

persons of distinguished merit either in wisdom or war. Such were Deborah and Samson and

Gideon, who-the first by exaltation of character, the second by strength, and the third by

military prowess-conducted the government with the energy and 'success. Sometimes for an

interval there was no judge at all. In such interregna every man was at liberty to do

what seemed good in his own eyes. By and by the example of the surrounding nations

produced the infection of monarchy in Israel. The people clamored for a king. The

uncertain judgeship proved only an equivocal defense against the strong, governments of

the adjacent pagan nations. Under the popular impulse, and against the theocratic

principle, SAUL, the son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin was chosen for the royal honor,

and was anointed by the prophet Samuel. With this event the second period of Israelitish

history begins.

Saul was a warrior. He was an austere and able man, cordially disliked by the priesthood,

between whom and himself there was a conflict of authority. He began his reign by making

war on the Ammonites, whom he quickly reduced to subjection. He then fell upon the

Philistines, whom he routed with great slaughter in the decisive battle of Michmash. Then

the Moabites, Amalekites, and Edomites were successively driven beyond the borders of

Israel. Meanwhile, however, an anti-Saul party had arisen among the people. The

intractable spirit of the king had given the priests opportunity to incite discontent and

to direct popular attention to young DAVID, the son of Jesse, as the coming ruler of

Israel. There were dissensions in the house of Saul. The jealousy of the king was aroused

against David, and Jonathan, the king's son, espoused the cause of the young aspirant to

the extent of becoming his protector. By and by, in a battle with the Philistines, led by

Achish, king of Gath, Saul and all but one of his sons