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capital of Bokenranf, was besieged and taken, and himself burned to death.

In the troublous times that followed the Ethiopian conquest, the country was broken up into petty principalities, ruled for the most part by native governors, who were virtually vassals of Ethiopia. At one time Queen AMENIRITIS, sister of Shabak, reigned at Thebes; but the power of the local princes was limited, and only for a season. Later in his reign Shabak, instigated by Hoshea, king of Israel, was drawn into a confederacy of the princes of Syria and promised his aid in a campaign against Sargon, king of Assyria. But the latter, more rapid in his movements than his enemies, bore down upon the confederates, struck Shabak's army at Raphia, only a short distance from the eastern borders of Egypt, and inflicted on him a disastrous defeat, 718 B. C. The Ethiopian king fled into his own dominions, retaining only Ethiopia and a part of Upper Egypt. In Lower and Middle Egypt the native princes transferred their allegiance to Sargon, and thus the influence of Assyria was established in the country.

During the reign of SHABATOK, son and successor of Shabak, the Ethiopian ascenancy was restored for a time throughout Egypt. But at the same time Shabatok lost the Ethiopian crown in a struggle with his rival, TAIHRAKA. Soon afterward the native Egyptian princes made an alliance with Hezekiah, king of Judah, and joined battle with Sennacherib, the successor of Sargon. The allied army was defeated in Southern Palestine and the princes, one by one, made their submission. Soon, however, they were again in arms, instigated and supported by Tahraka, of Ethiopia. A second time the army of Sennacherib advanced against the confederates; but when the Assyrians, one hundred and eighty-five thousand strong, had come into the vicinity of Pelusium, they were destroyed by some peculiar visitation or panic which the Egyptians, in common with the Jews, regarded as miraculous. (B. C. 698.) Sennacherib fled to Nineveh and abandoned his Egyptian wars. In the lull that followed the Assyrian discomfiture, Tahraka invaded Egypt, killed Shabatok, and again brought the whole land under Ethiopian domination (B. C. 692).

On the accession of Esarhaddon, son of Sennacherib, to the throne of Assyria, the struggle began anew for the mastery of Egypt. In the year 672 an Assyrian army invaded the country, captured Memphis and Thebes, and drove Tahraka into his own dominions. Egypt was divided into twenty provinces under as many princes, the leader

1 See Second Kings xix, 35-36.