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60 UNIVERSAL HISTORY.-THE ANCIENT WORLD.


 

movement headed by Haremheb, a decendant of Amenophis III. By this king the heretical work of the fourth Amenophis was obliterated as far as possible, and the dynasty ended with his reign in B. C. 1443.

Dynasty XIX. was founded by the great HOUSE OF RAMSES. The first sovereign of this name was perhaps related by descent with the Shepherd Kings, whose warlike qualities he seems to have inherited. He began his career by conducting some successful campaigns in Ethiopia, and Syria. He concluded a treaty with the nation of Hittites, and after a short reign died, leaving the crown to his son Seti1 I.

claim to the throne by marrying the Princess Ta'i, granddaughter to Amenophis III., thus uniting his rights with those

1 In Greek, Sethos

inherited from his foreign mother a taint of heresy, together with a person of extravagant ugliness. Both he and his family are figured in the monuments with bodies unnaturally attenuated and features of abnormal repulsiveness. He began his reign by introducing the adoration of the sun with a ceremonial unknown to the national worship.

Hymns were chanted by an orchestra of harpers, and the altars and aisles of the temples were strewed with flowers in a manner utterly at variance with the long established forms, and suggestive of the religion of the Vedas. The king changed his name to Khunaten,1 and abandoning

Thebes, transferred his capital to Middle Egypt. Leaving seven daughters and no son he transmitted his crown to a dynasty of sons-in-law, who were presently overthrown in a reactionary

1 Aten, being the name of the solar disc.