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which women were held by the ancient Egyptians.

Hatasu outlived her brother, and then associated with herself her younger brother TUTHMOSIS III. Him she outranked in the government, and public affairs she directed at her will. By her the temple of Amun-ra was completed, and her fame is recorded in the great obelisks at Thebes.

After a happy and prosperous reign of twenty-one years, Queen Hatasu was succeeded by Tuthmosis, who obliterated as far as practicable his sister's name and inscriptions from the monuments, dating his own reign from the beginning of hers. The Assyrian wars were still carried on, and a great battle, in which the Egyptians were victorious, was fought at Megiddo. Kadesh, the chief city of the Kheta tribes, was twice taken by the Egyptians, and the king marched his armies as far as Nineveh. The entire reign of fifty-five years was characterized by military activity and civil enterprise.

The next king of the dynasty was AMENOPHIS II. In the beginning of his reign the Egyptians captured Nineveh. On his return from one of his eastern campaigns, he is said to have brought back the bodies of seven kings whom he had slain in battle, and whose heads he put up as trophies on the walls of Thebes. After a short reign he was succeeded by his son TUTHMOSIS IV., who, according to Manetho, held the throne for nine years, and was in turn succeeded by his son AMENOPHIS III. He, like Aahmes, married a foreign princess, Queen Tai, perhaps out of Arabia. He began his reign by abandoning warlike enterprises, and devoted himself and his empire to works of peace. Architecture again flourished. New temples were built at Thebes, and two great statues, both of himself, with his mother and the queen in relief as the front of the die, were erected in the adjoining plain.

These two huge effigies in granite, standing in front of what was once the sanctuary of Osiris, have survived the wreck of centuries, and still rise above the flat in solemn state by the edge of a forest of palms. The northern colossus is the most famous, being the statue which was known to the Greeks by the name of the Vocal Memnon. According to the Greek tradition, based on the narrative of travelers who had visited the spot, the figure was said to give forth at sunrise a musical strain resembling the twanging of harpstrings. From the base of the pedestal to the crown it is fifty-nine feet in height. The ruined palace of Luxor likewise bears witness to the grandeur of the reign of Amenophis.


This gorgeous temple was connected with a similar palace at EI-Karnak by an avenue guarded by a thousand sphinxes, and at Thebes a colonnade in the same style was lined with colossi of the goddess Pasht. In the inscriptions of his times this monarch is known by the distinguished title of Pacificator of Egypt.

Next in the succession was AMENOPHIS IV., son of the preceding king. He seems to have