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58 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.

 

which the Hyksos were to take their flocks and herds and leave the country forever. So the fierce invaders who had held Egypt interror withdrew into the deserts of Syria.

After the overthrow of the Hyksos, the Theban House became dominant in all Egypt. This, the Eighteenth Dynasty, began, with the accession of AAHMES,1 about 1591 B.C. Upper and Lower Egypt were again consolidated under one crown. Aahmes secured the influence and favor of Ethiopia by marrying the king's daughter, the princess Nefru-ari, famous for her dusky charms, her wealth, and her accomplishments. Egyptian supremacy over the surrounding nations was again acknowledged or forced by the sword. The decayed and ruined temples were restored to their old-time richness and splendor. The military spirit, stirred into activity by the struggle for independence, burned for the excitements of war. It is the epoch of the introduction of the horse into Egypt and of the war chariot. It is the age in which the relative places of the priestly and the military caste in Egyptian society are reversed, and the soldier made preeminent. In sculpture and monumental elaboration there was a renaissance of the art of Dynasties XI. and XII. The famous temple-palace of ArnunRa at Thebes was built, and obelisks were erected here and there, commemorative of the great deeds of the age.

Aahmes was succeeded by his son AMENOPHIS1 I., and he by his son TUTHMOSIS I during whose reign the first great campaigns were undertaken against Assyria and the East. Phoenicia and Syria were subdued, and the arms of Egypt borne to the banks of the Euphrates. Late in his reign, Tuthmosig associated with himself on the throne his daughter HATASU, who, after the king's death, reigned jointly with her elder brother TUTHMOSIS II. Her rank and influence in the state furnish another proof of the high estimation in

1 In Egyptian Ammun-Hotep, sometimes Ra-Hotep. 1 Frequently written Amosi