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54 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.

 

reign that the great conquests already referred to were made, and the dominion of Egypt extended to the Red Sea and the cataracts of the Nile. The inscriptions of Pepi are very numerous in all parts of the country from Tanis in Lower Egypt and the Wadi Maghara, where the king is represented on the rocks as striking down an enemy, to Nubia, where it is said his dockyards were established. In Middle Egypt he founded the "City of Pepi," the site of which is now unknown, and built for his tomb the second of the two great pyramids of Dashur.

The successor of Pepi was his son MERENRA. Una was made viceroy of Upper Egypt, and to him Ethiopia was a tributary province. In that country, beyond the Tropic of Cancer, timber yards were established for building ships. The copper mines of Arabia and of the peninsula of Sinai were developed, and the quarries of granite of Elephantis were opened to furnish stone for the monuments. Of the reign of NEFERKARA, brother and successor of Merenra, little is known; and the same may be said of Queen NITOCRIS, last of the line, though after times were filled with her fame.

At the close of Dynasty VI. there is a great break in the monumental records of Egypt. Of the next four dynasties no trustworthy contemporaneous inscriptions have been discovered. The lists of Manetho, however, cover the period, and a few names of kings succeeding the Sixth and preceding the Eleventh Dynasty have been deciphered from a tablet at Abydos and the Chamber of Kings at El-Karnak. According to Manetho, Dynasties VII. and VIII. belonged to a Memphian line, and Dynasties IX. and X. to a Heracleopolite family. Beyond this, little is known. Whether the dynasties occupying this gap of more than a century and a half (2592-2423 B. C.) were contemporarysome reigning in Upper and others in Middle Egypt-remains an undecided question. It is more than likely that some of the kings of the House of Heracleopolis, belonging to Dynasties IX. and X., were local and contemporary with the sovereigns of the Memphian line.

The Twelfth Dynasty was introduced with the reign of AMENEMHA 1 I., 2380-2371 B. C. He had been a successful minister of a preceding king, and began his own career as a 1 In Greek, Amenemes. 1 The Story of Cinderella has been traced by curious antiquaries to a legend by Queen Nitocris