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ses. Subjection of Persia to Media. Residence of the Crown Prince at Ecbatana. Cyrus with his Grandfather. The Revolution. Threefold Division of Asia. Sketch of Cyrus. Relations of Persia with Lydia. Croesus and Cyrus at War. Diplomacy of the Latter. Battle of Pteria. Conflict in the Valley of Hermus. Siege of Sardis. Capture of Croesus and Subversion of Lydia. Contact with the Greeks. Revolt of Sardis. Policy of Cyrus with the AEgean States. Thales. Conquest of Harpagus. Cyrus subdues Bactria. The Sacae conquered. Further Conquests in the East. The King's Enmity to Babylon. Undertakes an Invasion. Overthrows that Empire. Persian Power extends to the Mediterranean. The Aryan Ascendency. Cyrus looks to Egypt. Restores the Jews. Makes a Campaign into the Great Plateau. Is slain by the Massagetse. Sketch of his Character. Accession of Cambyses. He kills Smerdis. Makes an Invasion of Egypt. Meets the Enemy at Pelusium. Takes Memphis. Overawes the Country. Disastrous Result of the Expedition against Arnun. Takes Vengeance on the Egyptians. Story of the False Smerdis. Death of Cambyses. His Character. Reign of the Magus. He betrays Himself. Favor to the Magi brings Revolution. Gomates overthrown by the Seven Princes. Accession of Darius. Religious Reform. The King suppresses Magism. Insurrections against the Government. The Same are Suppressed by the Royal Armies. Babylon is made the Capital. Suppression of many Revolts. The King as a Statesman.

Organization of the Empire. The Satrapial System. Support of the Government. The Administration of Espionage. Post-houses. Coinage. The King conquers India. He looks into Europe. Scythian Expedition. Revolt of the Greek Cities. Suppression of the Insurrection. "Sire, remember Athens." Policy of Darius. The Thracian Campaign. The Fleet destroyed. New Expedition. Battle of Marathon. Renewal of Preparations. Death of Darius. Xerxes takes up his Work. The Egyptian Revolt. The Great Invasion of Greece begun. Persia impends over Europe. The Army of Xerxes. Crossing of the Hellespont. Story of Thermopylae. Salamis and Ruin. Battle of Platea. End of the Expedition. Ac- cession of Artaxerxes. Second Revolt in Egypt. Peace of Callias. Syrian Insurrection. Greek Broils. Death of Artaxerxes. Troublous Times ensuing. The Lydian Revolt. Athens humiliated in Sicily. Leagues Herself with Persia. The Great Kings learn the Weakness of the Greeks. Revolt and Expedition of Cyrus the Younger. Battle of Cunaxa. Retreat of the Ten Thousand. Peace of Antalcidas. Accession of Ochus. His Campaign into Egypt. Sidon destroyed. Rise of Macedonia. Accession of Darius Codomanus. The Macedonian Invasion of Persia. Battle of the Granicus. Conquest of Asia Minor by Aexander. Battle of Issus. Rout of the Persians. Preparations of Darius for the Final Conflict. Arbela. Overthrow of the Empire. Pursuit and Death of Darius. ............ .343-376



Place of Parthia in the Scheme of Ancient History. Point of View from which the Empire is considered. Chronological Relations of Parthia. Reasons for giving Parthian History in this Place. Parthian some Sense a Revival of the Persian Power. Time Limits of the Narrative. Countries to be considered. Extent of Parthia Proper. Character of the Country. The Flora and Fauna. Climate. Parthia protected by her Position. Nomadic Character of the Primitive Tribes. Territorial Expansion. Surrounding Provinces. Sketch of Chorasmia. Character of Margiana. Of Arya. Of Sarangia. Of Sagartia. Of Hyrcania. More Distant Territories. Sketch of Bactria. OfArachosia. Of Sacastana and Carmania.-Of Persia Proper. Of the Mesopotamian Regions. Total Geographical Extent of the Empire ...... 377-383


Ethnic Origin of the Parthians. Of Aryan Derivation. But Modified with Scythic Blood. Reasons of the Modification. The Horseback Habits of the Race.

Unfixedness of Character. Primitive Religious Character. Zoroastrianism accepted. Dualism. Deterioration into Magism. Rise of the Magian Priesthood. Superstitions of the People. Decline of the Faith and Practice. Nature Worship revived. Religious Results of Alexander's Conquest. Warlike Spirit of the Parthians. Parthian Cavalry. War Manners of the Nation. Organization of the Army. Methods of the Campaign. Tactics. Efficiency of the Parthian Horse. Military Operations limited to the Day and the Summer. Parthian Weakness in the Matter of Sieges. War Vehicles. Elephants and Camels. Battle in Terroren. Formulae for Armistice and Treaty. Employment of Greek Language. Governmental Intercourse and Manners. Pledges and Hostages. Character of the Court. The Hunt. The Paradise. Appearance and Manners of the King. Royal Garments and Insignia. Place of Woman. Acquirements and Learning. Absence of Arts. Weakness of the Imaginative and Speculative Powers of Mind. Architectural Instincts and Achievements. Paucity of Parthian Remains. A Movable Capital. Hatra and Ctesiphon. Circular Walls of the Vol. I