CHAPTER XIX.-THE COUNTRY.
Sketch of Lower Mesopotamia. Babylonia Proper. Character of Susiana. The Euphrates Valley. Products. Mesopotamia Proper. Sketch of the Region. Northern Syria. Syria Proper. Hollow Syria. Gateway between Asia and Africa. Phoenicia. Its Advantages. Early Civilization. Tyre and Sidon. Damascus. Palestine. Peculiar Character of the Valley. Petty Israelitish States. Philistia. ldumaea. Palmyra. Extent of the Babylonian Empire. Its Rivers. Oroatis. Jerahi. Kuran and Dizful. Kerkah. Sajur and Kowcik. Orontes. Litany. Barada. Jordan. Jarmuk and Jabbok. Lakes. Sabakhah. Bahr-el-Melak. Dead Sea. Its Peculiarities. Sea of Tiberias. Bahr-el-Huleh. Bahr-el-Kades. The Arabian Desert. The Egyptian Empire .... 239-249
CHAPTER XX.-CLIMATE AND PRODUCTS.
High Temperatures of Babylonia. Variations in Different Regions. The Sirocco. Destruction of Forests. The Cereals. Abundant yields. Forest growths. General Products of Syria. Those of Palestine. Mineral Resources of Babylonia. Gems. Building Materials. Babylonian Animals. Birds. The Gray Heron. Fishes. Domestic Animals. Camel Buffalo ............. 250-254
CHAPTER XXI.-PEOPLE AND CITIES.
Mixed Character of the Babylonians. Three Race Elements Predominant. Physical Appearance of the Babylonians. Like the Assyrians. Features. The Susianians. Hair-dress. Beards. Swart Complexion. Intellectual Characteristics. Babylonian Science. Energy and Enterprise. Avarice. Luxurious Living. Strength and Heroism. Cruelty. Usages of War. Methods of Civil Government. Pride and Egotism. Religion. Practical Ethics. Calm Demeanor. The City of Babylon. Size and Character of the Metropolis. Great Structures. Temple of Belus. The Royal Palace. The Hanging Gardens. How watered. The Smaller Palace The Walls of Babylon The Towers. Splendor of the City. Existing Ruins. Remains of EI-Kasr and Arnran. The Birs-Nimrud. The Old Temple of Nebo. Its Mythological Character. Other Characteristics. Borsippa. Opis and Teredon. Susa. Carchemish. Tyre. Her Manufactures. Sidon. Ashdod. Jerusalem .... 254- 267
CHAPTER XXII.-ARTS AND SCIENCES.
Babylonian Architecture. Must be studied in Ruins. The Mounds. Materials of Structure. Plan of Structure. Designs in Color. The Babylonian Palaces. Bridges. Bricks. How laid. Cement. Great Magnitude of Buildings. Rude Character of Painting and Sculpture. Best Specimens. Gem-engraving. Caricature. Problems of Stonecutting. Enameling. Pigments. Painting in Relief. Metallurgy. Pottery. Glazing. Glass-blowing. Textile Fabrics. Brilliant Dyes. Lore of the Chaldees. Astronomy in Particular. Relics of Babylonian Starlore. Measurement of Time. Uses of Eastern Learning. Astrology ............. .267-274
CHAPTER XXIII.-MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.
Meager Personal Monuments. Dress and Habit of the Babylonians. Articles of Adornment. Priestly Garments. Military Dress. Weapons. Organization of the Babylonian Army. Usages in War. Objects of Invasion. Priests. Several Classes of Scholars. Influence of Learning. Schools. Common Vocations. Commerce in Particular. Exports and Imports. Babylonian Luxury. Banquets. Position of Women. Degrading Customs. Traces of Esteem for the Sex.................. 274-278
Religious Beliefs derived from the Chaldees. Slight Variations from the Old System. Principal Deities' Bel, Merodach and Nebo. Images of the Gods. Retinues of Priests. Ceremonial. Processions and Banquets. Cleanness and Uncleanness. Symbolism of the Babylonian System. Emblems of the Deities. Signs not understood. Symbolic Names of Temples, 278-280
CHAPTER XXV.-CIVIL AND MILITARY ANNALS.
Periods of Babylonian History. Babylon a Viceroyalty of Assyria. Early Troubles between the North and the South. Alternate Independence and Suppression. Syrian Invasions. The Kingdom established by Nabonassar. Pileser II. and Merodach-Baladan. Semiramis. Obscure Successor of Nabonassar. Merodach-Baladan gains the Throne. The Great Conflict with Sargon. The Latter Victorious. Babylon subordinated for Seventy-five Years. Appearance of Nabopolassar. His Collusion with Cyaxares. Success of the Conspiracy. Nabopolassar becomes King. Foreign Relations. Babylonia in Alliance with Media. Battle Of Megiddo. Necho's Invasion of Babylonia. Rout of the Egyptians at Carchemish. Nebuchadnezzar triumphs in the West. He becomes King. Revolt of the Phoenician Cities. Siege of Tyre. Insurrection of Jewry. Zedeklah's Fate. Sketch of Israel after the Exodus. Entrance into Canaan. Division of the Country. The Theocracy. Establishment of the Kingdom. Career of Saul. Accession of David. His Wars. Strife of his Sons. Reign of Solomon. Division of the Kingdom. Jeroboam rules Israel. Succession of Israelitish Rulers. Overthrow of the Kingdom.