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CONTENTS OF VOLUME 1.

  PAGE PREFACE v- viii CONTENTS ix- xvii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xix- xx INTRODUCTION xxi- xxii

BOOK FIRST-EGYPT.

CHAPTER 1.-THE COUNTRY.

General Character of Africa. Coasts and Mountains. Northern Africa. The Nile Valley. Sources of the River. The White and Blue Niles. Formation of Egypt. Character of the Valley. The Delta. Divisions of the Country. The Houses. The Annual Flood of the Nile. Height of the Overflow. Appearance of the Waters. Deposit from the Flood. Advantages to a Primitive People ............. 29-36

CHAPTER II.-THE PEOPLE.

Origin of the Egyptians. Not Semites or Negroes. Impulse of Immigrant Tribes. The Egyptians Cushite. Four Races known in the Valley. Natural Conditions of Civilization in Egypt. Fertility. Annual Flood. Isolation. Fixedness of Natural Aspect. Suggestion of Cities. The Soldier and the Priest. Reflex Effect of Mystery. Natural Suggestion of Monarchy. Personal Qualities of the Egyptians. Stature and Physiognomy. Longevity ....... .36-41

CHAPTER III.-CIVIL AND MILITARY ANNALS.

Obscurity of Ancient Dates. Herodotus and the Priests. Dynasties of Gods and Men. Attempted Chronology. Diodorus and his Dates. Opening of the Monuments. Manetho. Diodorus corrects Himself. What the Problem is. Were the Dynasties Consecutive or Contemporaneous? Views of Modern Scholars. Mariette. Brugsch. Lepsius. Duncker. Results. Reign of Menes. Founding of Memphis. Public Works. King Ateta. Kenkenes, Uenephes, and Semenpses. Butan and Kakan. Bainnuter. Neph- ercheres. Lesochris. Nebka. Tosorthros. Snefru. Accession of Khufu. Age of the Pyramids. Origin and Character of the Monuments. Description of the Pyramids of Ghizeh. How they were Built. Conjectural Uses. Reigns of Khufu, Khafra, and Menkera. Wars of these Kings. The Sphinx. Oppressions of the Fourth Dynasty. Decline under Dynasty V. Ptah-Hotep and Una. Sixth Dynasty. Foreign

Wars undertaken. Campaigns of Una. Reign of Pepi. Extension of Egyptian Power. Merenra. Neferkara-Nitocris Dynasties VII., VIII., IX., X. Twelfth Dynasty established by Amenemha. Ex tent of his Authority. Usertesen 1. Inscriptions and Obelisks. Succeeding Usertesidae. The Feiyoom. Lake Moeris. The Labyrinth. Tombs of Benihassan. Display of Manners. Queen Sebeknefrura. Government at Xois. Failure of National Power. Coming of the Hyksos. Devastation of Egypt. Revolt against the Shepherds. Recovery of Independence. Thebes Ascendant. Aahmes and Tuthmosis. Hatasu. Tuthmosis III. and IV. Queen Tai. Amenophis IV. House of Ramses. Seti 1. Ramses II. His Great Campaigns. His Public Works. Monumental Evidences of his Renown. Greatness of Thebes. Menepta. Primitive Israel. The Children of Jacob in Egypt. Story of the Exodus. Seti II. and Menepta II. The Later Ramesians. Dynasties XIX. and XX. Foreign Influences in Egypt. The Priestly House. Disintegration of the Kingdom. Revival under Taf-nekht. House of Sais. Divisions of the Country. War with Ethiopia. Country invaded by the Assyrians. Esarhaddon breaks Egypt into Provinces. Destruction of National Spirit. Reign of Psametik 1. Circumnavigation of Africa. Battle of Carchemish. The Last Pharaohs. Conquest of Egypt by Camby ses ................... 41-71

CHAPTER IV.-MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.

Literature of Egypt. Delineation of Manners and Customs. Rank of the King. His Importance in the State. Regarded as a Deity. His Name and Attributes the Same as those of the Deity. The Discipline of his Life. Care taken of his Person. Daily Ceremonial. Public Pageant. The King's Court. The Great Tribunal. Judicial and Administrative Officers. Furniture of Royal Apartments. Death of a King. Woman entitled to Succession. Few Great Egyptians. The Military Caste. Weaponry. Organization of the Army. The Priests. Exemption from Secular Duties. Supported at Public Expense. Elaborate Vol. I, ix