elsewhere dismayed and baffled the Federal army in its advance until General Johnston had securely withdrawn his forces to his chosen lines of defense. Meanwhile General Jackson by a series of rapid movements and bold attacks, in which strategy equaled valor, with far inferior numbers defeated successfully four generals with as many armies, swept the Valley of Virginia of hostile forces, made the Federal authorities tremble in their Capital, and frustrated the combinations by which the enemy had purposed to aid General McClellan and environs Richmond by large converging armies. During these operations the grand army of McClellan, inveigled by the skill of General J. E. Johnston to settle down on the swamps of the Chickahominy to the prudent occupation of digging trenches and earthworks, was on the first favorable opportunity stricken with marked success in the severe engagement of the Seven Pines. Unfortunately before his guidance had consummated victory General Johnston was wounded and disabled. Our army was then transferred to that consummate commander, General R. E. Lee. Soon thereafter summoning to his aid General Jackson, the prestige of whose name and recent exploits sufficed for the security of the Valley, he, in pursuance of a plain as admirably conceived as on his part boldly executed, assailed McClellan in flank and rear and by a series of bloody victories drove from their labored defenses his grand army. Shattered and dismayed it cowered for protection under cover of its gun-boats, there to swelter and waste beneath the oppressive sun and pestilent malaria of a shadeless plain on the banks of the Lower James. Even that measure of good fortune was due solely to those accidental miscarriages in combinations which in war often mar the wisest arrangements. The execution of General Lee's plan, with vigor equal to its conception, must inevitably have eventuated in the capture of the enemy's whole demoralized army.
While these triumphs were being won another large army of the enemy was advancing through Piedmont Virginia, toward its central lines of communication under the command of General Pope. He had disgraced the character an officer by braggart boats, and outraged humanity and civilization by stimulating and sanctioning desolating ravages and vindictive cruelties by his unscrupulous troops. General Jackson, dispatched with a moderate force to stay his progress, administered a speedy rebuke to his arrogant vaunts and gave an earnest of coming chastisement by defeating, in the sharp engagement of Cedar Run, his advanced division under General Banks. Soon after General Lee, despising the shrunken proportions and quelled spirit of the grand army in its unenviable asylum, proceeded with the larger proportion of his forces to unite with Jackson and confront the then collected and imposing of Pope. By a succession of movements too masterly to be comprehended, and too rapidly executed to be withstood by Pope, he broke up his communications, interrupted his supplies, and by throwing forces in his rear drove him to rapid flight, chased him from the Rapidan to Bull Run, and at last forced him, but not until sustained by large re-enforcement from Washington, to a decisive battle on the already memorable field of Manassas. There a second victory, scarce less decisive that the first, attested the continuing superiority of our troops and the unchanged favor of the God of battles. The enemy fled for refuge under their old defenses at Arlington and again spread dread and confusion in their quaking Capital. Instead of wasting strength and resources by either assailing the strongholds of the enemy or