influenced more or less by the positions in which they are placed and the circumstances by which they are surrounded. It is probably not unnatural that those who administer the affairs and disburse the patronage of a confederation of States should become to some extent biased in favor of the claims of the Confederacy when its powers are questioned, while it is equally natural that those who administer the affairs of the States and are responsible for the protection of their rights, should be the first to sound the alarm in case of encroachments by the Confederacy which tend to the subversion of the rights of the States. This principle of human nature may be clearly traced in history of the Government of the United States. While that Government encroached upon the rights of the States from time to time, and was fast concentrating the whole power in its own hands, it is worthy of remark that the Federal Executive, exercising the vast powers and dispensing the immense patronage of his position, has seldom if ever been able to 'share in the alarm and concern about State rights," which have on so many occasions been felt by the authorities and people of the respective States.
With renewed assurances of my high consideration and esteem,
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOSEPH E. BROWN. -GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Richmond, July 22, 1862.
Surg. T. H. WILLIAMS,
Medical Director and Inspector, Danville, Va.:
SIR: The attention of medical directors is again called to pamphlet of March 21 and circular of April 2 from this office urging upon medical officers the necessity for collecting the indigenous botanical remedies of the South and employing them liberally in the treatment of the sick. Medical directors are now specially instructed to bring the subject promptly to the notice of the medical officers of their respective districts, and will be required to report to them what articles have been collected and what quantities, in order that this office may be kept informed of the progress of this work.
The indigenous astringents, the crane's-bill, marsh rosemary, blackberry, sweet gum, &c., should be made available in the treatment of the bowel complaints of the warm season. In malarious districts the dogwood, tulip-bearing poplar, willow, boneset, century, and other indigenous tonics should be used as prophylactics as well as curatives. Especially should medical officers be instructed to procure an ample supply of articles of mucilaginous properties as the bene, the leaves of which are now about falling; the twigs, bark, and pith of sassafras; the bark of the elm, seed of the flax, or other accessible substances which might in a measure be substituted for the acacia or other imported articles of like character. Attention should also be particularly invited to a further investigation of the medicinal virtues of the Pinchneya pubes or calico bush (not the Kalmia latifolia or calico bush) frequenting South Carolina, Georgia, and more abundantly Middle Florida, it being closely allied in character to the cinchona, and having been used successfully in intermittent fever. Any interesting information elicited on this subject will be transmitted to this office.
With the ample supply of indigenous remedial agents afforded by the material medica of the South and at their disposal in the vicinity