ferent metallic salts, and a variety of chemicals can be obtained for the use of the laboratory only by our manufacturing them, while our citizens engaged in supplying niter, sulphur, and gunpowder need guidance, superintendence, and instruction to prevent the loss of labor and materials by imperfect or wasteful processes. It has therefore become urgent to add to the Ordnance Bureau some accomplished scientific officer to take charge of many of the operations which involve the application of chemistry to the arts and the province of metallurgy.
Establishments for the manufacture of the principal acids and chemicals must necessarily be placed at various convenient points, and the different ores used for ordnance purposes require analysis. As these operations are intended to be confined to what is required for strictly military purposes, it is recommended that there be added to the ordnance service an officer, with the rank of major, to be specially charged with the duties above referred to, and that a number of assistants be allowed him not exceeding four, to be appointed by the President as needed, and with rank either of lieutenant or captain, as may appear appropriate to the duties confided to them.
Fourteenth. I have reserved for the last the most important of all the subjects that can engage the attention of Congress. It is impossible to view without disquietude the approach of the period when many of the twelve-months' volunteers will be mustered out of service.
The experience of the past eight months has amply demonstrated, if, indeed, demonstration were needed, the radical vices of a system of short enlistments and the impossibility of conducting effective campaigns with raw levies. The time consumed in the instruction of the soldier, in his transportation, in his recovery from the usual camp diseases, in all the preparations required to make him reliable at all times and for all service, consumes from one-third to one-half of the term of a twelve-months' enlistment, and scarcely has the recruit been ripened into the hardy soldier when the rigor of the winter causes a forced inaction of several additional months. It is, perhaps, no exaggeration to say that the actual effective service of the volunteer for the first twelve months does not exceed on the average one-fourth of that term, and is thus rendered enormously expensive. Twelve months' pay, clothing and subsistence, transportation both ways, tents, camp equiPAGE, and medical attendance and supplies constitute a sum total for three or four months' service that is startling in amount, and the finances of the wealthiest nations on earth could scarcely bear a continuous drain of such magnitude; and yet this lavish expenditure is perhaps the least of the evils of the system. Engaged in a struggle for national life itself, the loss of money becomes insignificant when compared with the loss of efficiency in the Army. It is impossible to estimate the extent to which our arms will be weakened if the twelve-months' volunteers, inured to hardship, recovered from camp diseases, steadied by discipline, and inspired by the consciousness of their own improved condition, and efficiency, shall be replaced by raw recruits in the approaching spring at the very opening of the season for vigorous operations. It is believed that no wiser economy could be practiced than by granting a liberal bounty, together with a moderate furlough, to the twelve-months' volunteers on condition of their re-enlistment for the war. Nor should these inducements be delayed; let them be offered at once; let the Executive be empowered to establish regulations by which these volunteers shall, on condition of re-enlistment for the