employed in transporting supplies between White House and the front, which, toward the close of June, was twenty miles from White House and four miles from Richmond. Upon the withdrawal of the Army of the Potomac to Harrison's Landing, June 28, all the rolling-stock was destroyed or damaged as far as practicable to prevent it from falling into the hands of the enemy.
Near the close of March, 1862, the Orange and Alexandria Railroad was opened to Manassas Junction, twenty-six miles from Alexandria, and in April to Warrenton Junction, thirty-nine miles. In August, after relaying six miles of track and bridging Rappahannock River, the road was open to Culpeper sixty-one miles, which at the time was the main depot of supplies for the Army of Virginia. A few trains were run to the Rapidan River, eighty miles. Upon the retreat of General Pope in the last days of August the road was entirely abandoned, with the loss of 7 locomotives and 295 cars. In November it was reopened for a few days to Bealeton, forty-six miles, and to the town of Warrenton, to supply the Army of the Potomac on its march from Antietam to Fredericksburg.
The Manassas Gap Railroad was opened early in april, 1862, to Strasburg, sixty-one mile from Manassas and eighty-seven miles from Alexandria. It was operated only a very short time to Strasburg, but continued in use to Front Royal, fifty-one miles from Manassas, through May and part of June, when it was abandoned. In November, 1862, trains were run over it to Front Royal for a few days with supplies for General McClellan's army.
The Alexandria, Loundon and Hampshire Railroad was opened in the spring of 1862 to Vienna, fifteen miles from Alexandria, and used for transporting supplies to the fortifications south of Washington and the camps along its line. During the first two weeks of September it was the principal line of supply for the Army of the Potomac when encamped near Washington after the second battle of Bull Run and previous to the Antietam campaign.
These four railroads comprise all that were operated as military lines from Alexandria and Washington. They were subsequently used more or less at various times, as will be mentioned hereafter, and continued to play an important part in the operations of the Army of the Potomac.
In April, 1862, the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad was opened from Aquia Creek to Fredericksburg, fifteen miles, and operated to supply the forces stationed at Fredericksburg. The road was abandoned September 7, with the loss of one engine, fifty-seven cars, and a small quantity of material.
On the 18th of November repairs were again commenced, and the road was opened on the 28th to Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg, and was used to supply the Army of the Potomac until June, 1863. A very large amount of work was required not only to the railroad, but to the wharves at Aquia Creek, all of which had been burned when this line was abandoned by our forces.
The limited accommodations for receiving and delivering freight and passengers at Aquia rendered an increase of wharf room and tracks necessary, and a new wharf, afterward named, "Yuba Dam," was completed in February, one mile below Aquia Creek wharf, and the necessary tracks laid from the main road to it. Vessels drawing ten feet and a half of water could land at the new wharf at low tide,