War of the Rebellion: Serial 126 Page 0870 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

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The principal towns are the county seats, and contain a population as follows:

Circleville City ......................................... 4,500

Chillicothe .............................................. 7,600

Waverly .................................................. 1,000

Lancaster City ........................................... 4,300

Logan .................................................... 1,500

New Lexington ............................................ 800

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Total .................................................... 19,700

Total population of the county towns, 19,700; a little more than one-seventh of the total population of the district.

Health.-The elevated and mountainous nature of the eastern counties renders this portion of the district remarkably exempt from endemic and epidemic forms of disease, while the valley, comprising the western counties, is equally noted for the prevalence of marsh miasmatic fever and the hydra manifestations of this subtle poison. This inexplicable endemic constitution of locality, constantly emanating and administering a poison to the nervous centers and the secreting organs, causes a much large per cent. of permanent walking invalids than is found in sections exempt from this influence. Typhoid fever, pneumonia, bronchitis, diphtheria, and intermitting fever embrace the principal sporadic and endemic acute diseases incident to this locality. Since the prevalence of diphtheria in the autumn of 1860 no epidemic form of disease has been manifest.

Inhabitants.-Politically, a majority of the district is decidedly, and perhaps not honestly, adverse to the present administration. At one time, organizing and publicly drilling in several sections, they viciously contemplated resistance to law and the enforcement of the draft under the call of July 18, 1864; and looking upon every man in the service of the Government as a public enemy, they made threats of great violence and committed numerous private injuries. This continued until reasons, best known to the property holders enlisted in the hazardous enterprise, induced a charge in the conduct of this disaffected class, becoming in sentiment suddenly and greatly improved; and under the stimulating influence of large local bounties and impending draft many of the most infatuated entered the service by voluntary enlistments, and others relieved the district of their molestation and influence by making a change of residence unaccompanied by any change of enrollment.

Socially.-With a fair system of public schools, four chartered institutions of learning, a State farm, and the ideopoietic power of the draft, there still exists a great deficiency of the rudiments of common information and morals.

Many of the elder portion of the present inhabitants are natives of other States--Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina, and a few of the first families of Virginia. These form the basis and give cast and character to the society, institutions, modes of business, and manner of living.

The interests of the district are principally agricultural, and the inhabitants are industrious and economical. All can, and most do, obtain comfortable homesteads; and some have accumulated wealth and live in the full consciousness of the superior advantages and influence of the American Union. Of the total number enrolled 13,628 are farmers and 4,743 embracing all other occupations.

The aggregate amount of land under cultivation is about 600,000 acres. Of this 150,000 is devoted to wheat and 260,000 to Indian