executive were regarded with prejudice and district. This law with its various amendments is now recognized as necessary, liberal, and humane, and full confidence is expressed in the integrity and impartiality of those who were appointed to administer it.
The laws governing the Provost-Marshal-General's Bureau are well adapted to its workings, and the amendments adopted have been suggested by experience and have proved practically beneficial.
Substitution.-By act of Congress (sections 4 and 5, act of February 24, 1864) any person enrolled may furnish at any time previous to a draft an acceptable substitute who is not liable to draft, nor at the time in the military or naval service of the United States, and such person so furnishing a substitute shall be exempt from draft during the time for which such substitute shall have been accepted; and any person drafted into the military service of the United States may, before the time fixed for his appearance for duty at the draft rendezvous, furnish an acceptable substitute who may or may not be liable to draft. If liable to draft, the name of the principal shall be again placed on the roll, and shall be liable to draft on future calls, but not until the present enrollment shall be exhausted; if the substitute is not liable to draft, the principal shall be exempt during the time for which such substitute is not liable to draft. In either case the exemption shall not exceed the term for which such person shall have been drafted.
Section 16, act of March 3, 1865, provides that persons who were drafted for one year and who furnished substitutes for three years should be exempt from military duty during the time for which such substitutes were not liable to draft, not exceeding the time for which such substitutes were mustered into service, anything in the act of February 24, 1864, to the contrary notwithstanding.
The system of substitution is, within itself, very simple, and is doubtless the most practical an equitable way of avoiding personal service by those who, from inclination, business interests, or other causes, were unwilling to give personal response to the calls of the Government. The services rendered by a large number of substitutes have been valuable, while in some instances the reverse of this is true, owing in part to the disreputable character of the substitutes themselves and to the bad influences brought to bear upon them by an unprincipled class of men usually termed 'substitute brokersnd instructed them in the arts of desertion and "bounty jumping."
To guard against the enlistment of this class of men boards of enrollment should be required to conform strictly to the requirements of paragraph 7, Circular Numbers 33, Provost- Marshal-General's Office, series of 1863, which reads as follows:
All persons who may be drafted and who desire to present substitutes shall give notice in writing to the Board of Enrollment that on such a day they will present a substitute, giving his name, residence, age, and state whether he is an alien or citizen.
The principal should be required personally to present his substitute, who should undergo a rigid examination with a view to his moral as well as physical qualifications, and if accepted the principal should pay the sum agreed upon between them to the mustering officer, who in turn should deposit it in the U. S. Treasury, to be paid to the substitute as hereinafter recommended.
Substitute brokers should not be allowed access to the office of the provost-marshal during the examination of the substitute unless