substitute. Under the first ruling of this Bureau many persons paid commutation money who subsequently, on examination, were exempted. The amounts so paid have been refunded.
The order for this draft was the signal for violent disturbance in many portions of the loyal States, and much blood was shed before these disturbances ere quieted. In some portions of the country, particularly in the city of New York, certain districts in Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Illinois, the draft was conducted under the protection of troops sent there to overawe the lawless, and in other districts the draft was deferred until troops could be furnished to protect the officers.
This draft was not completed until late in the year and produced but few men for the service. Its practical operations, however, were of much value in pointing out the defects of the act under which it was made, the provisions of which were strictly complied with.
A large number of persons were exempted under this draft by he payment of "communication money," many localities entirely clearing themselves by raising money and advancing it to the persons drafted. This appeared to be the favosections to prevent the re-enforcement of the armies in the field with men.
Draft under call of March 14, 1864.-The second draft was commenced about the 15th day of April, 1864, and was for deficiencies under the calls of the President of October 17, 1864, for 200,000 men (in addition to the call of October 17, 1863) for three years" service, and March 14, 1864, for 200,000 men to supply the wants of the Navy and to provide for contingencies, or, the calls being added together, for 700,000 men for three years" service.
The product of the draft of 1863 was credited upon the call of October 17, 1863 (no call having been made for any specified number when that daft was ordered), and all volunteers recruited under the call were credited up to the day of draft. This latter proviso stimulated recruiting to a wonderful extent, and many sub-districts having the fear of draft before them entirely filled their quotas before the day of draft. To this fact more than any other must be attributed the small number of men produced by draft under these calls.
At this time there appears to have been a conflict of opinion as to whether the amendment of February 24, 1864, authorized the drawing of 50 per cent. in addition to the number required from the districts, and in some district in Pennsylvania and Kentucky this per cent. was drawn; but upon the opinion of Solicitor Whiting being obtained that the said amendment did not authorize the drawing of more than the number required, those so drawn in the per cent. were discharged.
But few, if any, disturbances of the peace occurred during the progress of this draft, the people having learned to look upon the draft as a military necessity. The abolition of many of the objectionable features of the original act by the amendment of February 24, 1864, also tended to produce this result.
Over 30,000 persons paid commutation money during the progress of this draft, though the number was considerably below the previous draft, 'substitution" having the preference.
This draft was very generally wound up by the 1st of July, and the enrollment having been revised, a further call was made by the President as follows:
Draft under call of July 18, 1864.-This call was made under the provisions of the amendment to enrollment act, approved July 4,