War of the Rebellion: Serial 126 Page 0667 UNION AUTHORITIES.

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proportion of nearly one in seven, which is by far the highest mortally from this cause exhibited in the records of the Army. The general proportion of deaths from disease among white troops is less than one in seventeen.

Deaths in action and from wounds.*

The proportion per thousand which each loyal State and group of States furnished to the item of mortally appears in the following table:

Maine.......................44,37

New Hampshire...............47,27

Vermont.....................58,22

Massachusetts...............47,76

Rhode Island................22,34

Connecticut.................35,48

New York....................35,68

New Jersey..................25,21

Pennsylvania................31,75

Delaware....................25,63

Maryland....................17,04

District of Columbia........ 3,62

Ohio........................36,55

Indiana.....................30,01

Illinois....................34,80

Michigan....................44,82

Wisconsin...................42,01

Minnesota...................25,33

Iowa........................45,44

Kansas......................61,01

California..................12,34

West Virginia...............37,90

Kentucky....................25,10

Missouri....................21,74

New England States..........44,76

Middle States...............31,79

Loyal States (general ratio)35,10

Border States...............25,32

Western States..............36,81

Colored troops..............16,11

It is observable that in general the battle mortality ranges highest in the northern tier of States, whether Eastern or Western. The high ratio of New England under this head, 44,76, is correlative with the ratios of Iowa, 45,44, of Michigan, 44,82, and of Wisconsin, 42,01. Even New York, notwithstanding the enormous number of bounty jumpers who swelled its credit without going to increase its field mortality, exhibits, the proportion of 35,68 killed or died of wounds, which is slightly above the general ratio of the loyal States. On the other hand, the ratio of the Border States is but 25,32, which is 9,78 below the general ratio and 19,44 below that of New England; and as a rule the ratio of the southern tier of loyal States is either below the general ratio or not far removed from it.

As an explanation of the superior battle mortality of the extreme northern section of the country I suggest the fact that, this region being far removed from the seat of war, it was not necessary for any portion of the troops raised in it to remain at home on garrison duty, and they were therefore kept almost constantly at the front. Hence also, at least in part, the high ratio of this section under other heads of casualty resulting in an especial manner from field service, such as deaths by disease and discharges for disability.

A remarkable exception to the rule above noted is Kansas, which was a frontier State during nearly the whole contest, and which, nevertheless, shows the highest battle mortality of the table. But the population of Kansas is a peculiane, rendered such by its origin and history. The same singularly martial disposition which induced above half the able-bodied men of the State to enter the Army without bounty, may be supposed to have increased their exposure to the casualties of battle after they were in the service.

Deaths by disease.*

The variations of figures to be considered in connection with this subject resulted in part from the varied nature of the service required

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* But see foot-note (+), pp.664, 665.

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