War of the Rebellion: Serial 126 Page 0654 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

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Under the calls of July 18, 1864, and December 19, 1864, the true quotas of New York County, determined as the quotas of other places, were 42, 152, viz:

Quota under call of July 18, 1864, 21, 133. Of this number the county furnished by enlistments but...................2,585

And by draft.......................................... 843 Making a total of only 3,428

The balance being made up by naval credits reported by commission.

Quota under call of December 19, 1864, 21,019. On account of complaints made, the President reduced this to 15,762. Of this number the county

furnished by enlistments..............................4,229

And by draft.......................................... 790

Making a total of.................................... 5,019

A very large proportion of the enlistments were "bounty jumpers," of no value, but rather a positive injury to the service.

PART IV.

Colored men and their relation to the military service, as established by laws and orders during the late war, and their recruitment as soldiers.

At the commencement of the rebellion, April 15, 1861, the Army was composed exclusively of white troops. The regulations of the Army governing the recruiting service (par. 1299) provided that "any free white male person above the age of eighteen, "&c.," might be enlisted." Negro slavery existed in fifteen States of the Union, and fugitive slaves escaping from one State to another were delivered up on claim of their owners.

The first legislation by Congress directly affecting colored persons was the act approved March 13, 1862. a It prohibited all officers or persons in the military or naval service of the United States from employing any of the forces untive commands for the purpose of returning fugitives from service or labor who escaped from any persons to whom such service or labor claimed to be due, and provided that any offic by a court-martial of violating this article should be dismissed from the service.

This was followed by an act, a approved July 17, 1862, the twelfth section of which authorized the President to receive into the service of the United States, for the purpose of constructing intrechments, or performing camp duty, or any other labor, or any military or naval service for which they were found competent, persons of African descent, and provided that such persons should be enrolled and organized, under such regulations, not inconsistent with the Constitution and laws, as the President might prescribe.

The thirteenth section of this act directs-

That when any man or boy of African descent, who by the laws of any State shall owe service or labor to any person who during the present rebellion has levied war, or has arms against the United States, or adhered to their enemies by giving them aid and comfort, shall render any such service as is provided for in this act, he, his mother, and his wife and children, shall forever thereafter be free, any law, usage, or custom whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding: Provided, That the mother, wife, and children of such man or boy of African descent shall be made free by the operation of this act, except where such mother, wife, or children owe service or labor to some person who during the

a See Appendix, Doc. 35.