Thus a portion of those who enlisted under the call in April, 1861, for 75,000 three-months" men again enlisted under the call in July following for three years; others re- entered the service for nine months, or for one or two years, and at the expiration of these periods again re-enlisted for three years; and the entire "veteran volunteer" force consisted of those who, having served two years, re-enlisted for three years more.
It will be observed, therefore, that a large portion of the number counted in filling calls has been furnished, first, by the re-enlistment of those in service, and, second, by those who have re-entered the service after a discharge from a former enlistment under which they had been credited; that is, in filling the different calls each accepted enlistment was credited, issued of limiting the credit to the actual number of persons who entered the service anew; and hence, to determine the number of men actually entering the service for the first time under the different calls, the number credited should be reduced in the same ratio that the enlistments of the same persons have been repeated. The extent of this reduction cannot be calculated at this time, or even estimated with sufficient accuracy to be useful.
It follows, therefore, that, on account of a necessary repetition of credits incident to enlistments, the tax upon the military basis of the country has been less than would appear by considering simply the number of men embraced in the different calls for troops, or the number of credits allowed upon these calls.
But the necessary repetition of credits, incident to repeated enlistments properly made of the same men, is not the only cause of discrepancy between the number of men called for and the actual drain upon the population of the country resulting from the successive calls. While it was true that the success attained in the recruitment of the armies resulted mainly from the patriotism of the people, and was greatly advanced by the labors of many zealous citizens and efficient committees, it is a fact that there were places in which the military service demanded by patriotism was entirely or in part evaded, and that at enormous cost in local taxes.
During the last two years of the war, but more especially under the last two calls for troops, the desire to escape the draft was so great in some localities that the necessity of providing suitable re-enforcements for the armies was subordinated to the simple object of filling quotas. Through the fraud and deceit of persons engaged in this nominal re- enforcement of the Army, substitutes and recruits, morally, mentally, and physically unfit for the service, were credited, and then had to be discharged without performing any duty, thus contributing to the necessity for new calls.
The forgery of enlistment papers was resorted to, and the preparation of papers for fictitious credits, of a character less criminal, though as injurious to the Army, by depriving it of recruits, was practiced with success in many places.
Committees of citizens, selected and instructed to "fill the quota" of their respective localities, conscientiously, perhaps, to satisfy their fellow-citizens and relieve them from the draft, apparently lost sight of the wants of the service, and devoted themselves to securing credits to the exclusion of enlisting men. This is illustrated by the official report of the committee which was selected by the people of the city and county of New York to represent and act for them in this matter, and which continued, and which continued in operation for two years. In