either as cavalry, infantry, or artillery, in such numbers, not exceeding 1,000,000, as he might deem necessary for the purpose of repelling invasion and suppressing insurrection, and directing that the volunteers thus accepted should serve for not exceeding three years nor less than six months.
These acts of Congress were published in general orders from the Adjutant-General's Office. The people responded so readily and enthusiastically to the appeals of Congress and the Executive that no formal call was issued. Regiments and companies were immediately offered in large numbers by States and individuals, and, as circumstances seemed to demand, requisitions were made on the Governors. Individuals received special authority to raise military organizations (termed independent acceptances), in some instances, without reference to the State authorities. The necessity for system and equality in the apportionment of the demands of the Government for troops upon the several States was no recognized at this early period of the war. This neglect subsequently bore its legitimate fruit in the confusion and inequality of apportionment attending later calls, when military service was no longer popularly regarded as a privilege, but exacted as a duty. Some States, during this period, raised and offered troops and inequality of apportionment attending later calls, when military service was no longer popularly regarded as a privilege, but exacted as a duty. Some States, during the period, raised and offered troops which were declined, but which, if accepted, would have made up no more than their fair share of the total taken from all the States. It sometimes happened that troops thus rejected went from their own State into other States, and were there accepted and credited. When it became necessary in 1862 to make further calls, the credits to States for men furnished under these acts were made up in the manner shown in another part of this report. Under that adjustment the States from which they had been declined were on this account declared to be deficient, and were called upon to make good a deficiency which they had not been permitted to avoid. Claims and complaints arising from these causes, which doubtless were in many instances well found, thought not well authenticated, were brought forward subsequently and much embarrassed the business of this Bureau.
The system of inated by orders from the Secretary of War, dated February 21, 1862.
The Border States, it will be remembered, suffered greatly from civil commotion in the summer and fall of 1861. Their lawful authorities found themselves unable to keep down the disloyal spirit and suppress the armed outbreaks within their jurisdiction without the assistance of the Federal Government. Appeals were made by the Governors of Missouri and Maryland for authority to raise militia forces for service within the limits of these States to aid in establishing and maintaining law and order. The authority being obtained, the Governor of Missouri raised one regiment of infantry of 770 men, two batteries of artillery of 171 men, and fourteen regiments of cavalry of 10,083 men, which force was to serve during the war and co-operate with the troops in the service of the United States in repelling invasion and suppressing rebellion in said State.
Similar authority empowered the Governor of Maryland to raise a force of 4,500 men for service within the limits of that State. The raising of these troops for State service at the expense of the United States was subsequently approved by the act of Congress of February 13, 1862, a which limited, however, the number authorized for the State of Missouri to 10,000, those in excess being mustered out. The same act provided, however, that no volunteers or militia from any
a See Appendix, Doc. 35.