authority throughout the country. On the 1st of January, 1861, the Army of the United States was composed as follows: a
Present Absent Present and absent
Commissioned officers 727 371 1,098
Enlisted men 13,930 1,374 15,304
Total 14,657 1,745 16,402
This force was scattered over the territory of the United States from the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean. Between January 1, 1861, and January 1, 1862, it was, in addition to ordinary casualties, reduced by the resignation and desertion of 313 commissioned officers who joined the rebellion. Notwithstanding the influence brought to bear upon the rank and file of the Army, they were not materially affected by desertion during the same time. But few, if any, enlisted men turned against the Government.
The leaders of the rebellion commenced as early as December, 1860, to prepare the Southern States for armed resistance to the Government. With the spread of the secession movement from State to State, the military ardor of the Southern people become more and more aroused, and organizations, under State auspices, sprang up everywhere, and before the loyal Northern States actually began their preparations for the defense of the Government the South had a force larger than the army of the United States ready for the conflict. No addition was made to the force at the disposal of the Government the South had force large than the Army of the United States ready for the conflict. No addition was made to the force at the disposal of the Government until April 9, 1861, when under the authority of the twenty-fourth section of the act of March 3, 1803, b a call was made by the President, through an order of the Secretary of War, c upon the District of Columbia for ten companies for muster into the service of the United States. Other calls were made upon the District during the same month, but troops were not obtained under them without embarrassment and difficulty and some conciliation on the part of the Government. The first companies called out could not be mustered, because a large number of the men declined to be sworn into service. In one company with 100 men on its rolls, all except the officers, one sergeant, one corporal, one musician, and ten privates refused to parade for muster. Disloyalty was probably the motive of some. Others alleged their willingness to serve in defense of the District of Columbia, but declined to muster without a guaranty that they should not be required to serve beyond its limits. It was finally stipulated, as a condition of muster, that they were "to serve within the District not go without it." Thirty-eight companies of the District militia were finally mustered into the United States service for three months, thirty-five under the conditions specified above and three without conditions. It is proper to state that these troops, in whole or part, did subsequently serve out of the District without opposition or protest.
a For details, see Appendix, Doc. 1, Table 1.
b See Appendix, Doc. 35.
c See Appendix, Doc. 32.
*But see revised table, Vol. I, this series, p. 22.