The arrangements for the spring campaigns of 1864 were made, on the part of the Government, to put forth its strength. In all the bureaus of the War Department supplies were provided on a scale of great magnitude to meet any exigency that could be foreseen. The estimates were based upon an army organization of 1,000,000 of men. The States were called upon to strengthen the armies by volunteers; new drafts were ordered and put in execution throughout all the loyal States; vast supplies of arms, ammunition, clothing, subsistence, medical stores, and forage were provided and distributed in depots to meet the wants of the troops wherever they might operate; horses, mules, wagons, railroad iron, locomotives and cars, bridge timber, telegraph cable and wire, and every material for transportation and communication of great armies under all conditions were supplied. Congress with unstinting hand voted large appropriations for recruiting, payin office of lieutenant-general, to command all the armies was created by law. Ulysses S. Grant was appointed to the rank by the President, and assumed command as lieutenant-general on the 17th day of March, 1864, from which time the operations of all the armies were under his direction.
The national forces engaged in the spring campaign of 1864 were organized as armies or distributed in military departments as follows:
The Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major-General Meade, whose headquarters were on the north side of the Rapidan. This army was confronted by the rebel Army of Northern Virginia, stationed on the south side of the Rapidan, under General Robert E. Lee.
The Ninth Corps, under Major-General Burnside, was, at the opening of the campaign, a distinct organization, but on the 24th day of May, 1864, it was incorporated into the Army of the Potomac.
The Army of the James was commanded by Major-General Butler, whose headquarters were at Fortress Monroe.
The headquarters of the Army of the Shenandoah, commanded by Major-General Sigel, were at Winchester.
Three armies were united under Major General William T. Sherman, viz, the Army of the Cumberland, Major-General Thomas commanding; the Army of the Tennessee, Major-General McPherson commanding, and the Army of the Ohio, Major-General Schofield commanding. General Sherman's headquarters were at Chattanooga. The effective strength of these three armies was nearly 100,000 men and 254 guns, to wit:
Infantry Artiller Cavalry Total. Number
Army of the
Major-General 54,568 2,377 3,828 60,773 130
Army of the
Major-General 22,437 1,104 624 24,165 96
Army of the
General 11, 183 679 1,697 13,559 28
Grand aggregate --- --- --- 98,497 254
About these figures were maintained during the campaign, the number of men joining from furlough and hospitals compensating for the loss in battle and from sickness.
In the Department of Kentucky there was likewise a large active force, under command of Major-General Burbridge, and also in East