a very long, steep hill. It had been raining, and the mud was very deep and heavy on the steepest part of the hill. Before my train arrived there nearly every wagon stalled. There was a large pioneer corps at the hill, but they only helped push when the wagons stalled. I took a small number of negro pioneers I had and shoveled all the mud off to the side of the road. This left the road very slippery, as the soil was clayey. I then had the road picked up into the dry earth and made rough, and the trains went up the hill without any difficulty. I wouild here remark that I had organized a pioneer corps of fifty negroes, with picks, spades, and axes, and all through the march I found their services invaluable. Indeed, without their services it would have been impossible for me to have got my train along. I think every division train should have a pioneer corps along with it on all marches, and then that quartermasters should see that any bad places in the road are repaired before a wagon is stalled or broken down in them; this is often not the case. My experience is that "one minute's work in time" repairing roads 'saves more than nine."
The road from Ocmulgeed soil clayey. In dry weather roads are very good; but when I moved over them it was raining and the roads were terrible, the wagons often going in up to the beds in mud. At least one-half of the roads would have to be corduroyed in order to pass heavy trains in wet weather. Arrived at Milledgeville November 24.
The road from Milledgeville to Sandersville I found very good until we got near Snadersville, where we had Buffalo Swamp and Buffalo Creek to pass. This was a bad swamp and had to be corduroyed for about half a mile. The road was good from Sandersville to the Ogeechee River and soil sandy. Reached Ogeechee River at night, 28th of November. Enemy attacked rear of my train, but were repulsed. On the south side of the Ogeechee River there is a very bad swamp, and between two and three miles of it had to be corduroyed. The marsh was so soft it required a force constantly at work on it, as the timber all sank down into the ground.
Crossed Big Buck Head Creek at Big Buck Head Church. Here was an admirable place, especially on the south side, for a force to prevent an enemy's crossing. Decmeber 3 passed to the east of Millen; roads very low and swampy. In wet weather they must be almost impassable. December 4, on the road from Millen to Springfield, had to cross one very bad swamp, where it was necessary to build a corduroy road for half a mile. From this time until we reached Springfield we had a constant succession of swamps. About ten miles northeast of Springfield there is a swamp five miles wide, and in order to make it available for military operations in wet weather it would be necessary to corduroy the whole five miles. I saw more than 100 wagons stalled in this swamp adn a number broekn down. The pioneer corps of the army had gone on ahead before the roads were bad, consequently there were but very few men to repair the road.
The regular pioneers usually go in advance of the army and repair some of the worst places. By the time half of the trains have passed over the roads in this marshy country, places that were at first apparently good have become very bad; and as the pioneers are out of reach, the quartermaster has to rely upon his own resources, adn I would urgh division quartermaster should be required to have a pioneer corps and then repair the roads where he sees that they need repairing.
I left Springfield on the 8th of December and arrived within six miles of Savannah on the night of 10th instant. Roads mostly very