to the harbor for commercial use, while at the same time it preserves important sites that hereafter will be occupied by batteries bearing on the channel leading to the city of Boston. The following narratives of the operations on these islands are drawn form the report of Colonel Graham, the superintending engineer. The same officer was charged with the application of the appropriation of $100,000 for the preservation and repair of the harbors on the Atlantic. The accompanying summary gives his views on this subject in relation to the Susquehanna River below Haver de Grace, dredging the Patapsco below Troy, and Delaware Breakwater. Colonel Graham recommends additional appropriations for the Atlantic harbor improvements.*
During the past year sixty-eight cadets completed their studies and military exercises at the Academy, and were commissioned as lieutenants in the Army. This is the most numerous calls that has ever graduated at the institution since its organization in 1862. For many years the number of graduates has not sufficed to fill the annual vacancies in the Army.
The number of officers in the several branches of the staff, and of regiments now comprising the Regular Army, has greatly increased from time to time, while the number of cadets authorized by law has remained unaltered since 1843. The result is that neither the staff corps, nor regiments of artillery, cavalry, and infantry, can be furnished with the numbers to perfect their company organizations, and military science and art cannot be disseminated throughout the country in proportion to the increase of population and national interests to be protected. The total number of cadets now at the Academy is 235, and the total number authorized by existing laws is 293. From various incidents to which the appointments are subject, this ration does not materially alter from year to year.
The average cost of the institution for the last twenty years has been $160,711.83. The cost during the past academic year was $201,217. These sums include the pay of cadets, officers, and professors, and all contingencies.
The annual average appropriation for twenty years is $166,684.63, and for the present year is $257,505. This excess arises form the increase of the pay of cadets, and for increase cost of forage for artillery and cavalry horses, &c.
Recommendations.-To meet the wants of the military service, and to diffuse a knowledge of the science and art of war more extensively throughout our widely extended domain, I recommend at this time an increase in the total number of cadets of two additional appointments for each State and Territory and the District of Columbia, thus making the number of appointments to be authorized under the law to be one from each Congressional district and Territory and the District of Columbia, ten from "at large" annually by the President's selection, and two in addition from each State and Territory and the District of Columbia.
The difficulties that have been experienced for years past in training the minds and bodies of the young gentlemen sent to the Academy
*Fort portion of this report relating to river and harbor improvements, here omitted, see Executive Document Numbers 1, House of Representatives, Thirty-ninth Congress, first session, Vol. II, pp. 921-925, of said document.