unknown, and were only to be counted as one-year's men, with the understanding that as soon as the complete returns were received the exact credit could be given, preferring to reduce rather than to increase the quota when the revision was made.
During the month of December the enrollment of the State of Pennsylvania was largely reduced; about 3,000 men were put in the service, and the naval enlistments were found to consist largely of three-years" men. And thus having received full and accurate reports of the condition of the enrollment up to January 1 and calculated the credits to which the State was entitled up to that date, the quota of the State was found to be 49,583. This is the only instance of any change in the quota of that State under the present call, and was incident to the revision referred to, and which applied to all the States, varying their quotas by increasing some and diminishing others.
The principle on which the quotas of districts is assigned is simply this:
Three years has always been reckoned as the full term of service, and six months, nine months, one and two years" men have been reduced to that standard. Prior to the act of July 4 all drafts were made for that period. Under the July act the President was authorized to call for me, two, and three years" men, respectively, and in order to relieve the hardships of the draft it was provided that the men drawn should only serve for one year.
The fact that men were put in service for one year by draft did not affect the method heretofore adopted of reducing all men furnished to the three-years" basis, any more than if they had been put in service for one year by voluntary enlistment as heretofore; and as it was necessary to adopt one of the three terms as the basis, and as the same results would be obtained by selecting either one, two, or three years, there was no occasion to change the basis from what it had been hitherto, and consequently the basis of three years was retained. As the call was made to obtain 300,000 men, and as each of the districts had under the call of July furnished more or less one, two, and three years" men, it was necessary to distribute the quotas under the call for 300,000, so that each district's quota would be in proportion to its enrollment, and the proportion of one, two, and three years" men, which it had furnished under the call of July 18, for 500,000.
To do this the number of men furnished by each district and the period of their service were taken into account, the one-year's men counting as units, the two-years" men counting as two units, and the three-years" men as three units each, thus ascertaining the numbers of years of service which each district had furnished under that call.
Then, as the 300,000 men are to be obtained, in addition to those already furnished, the excess of years of service over the number of men furnished under the call of July 18 was added to the call of December 19, and this sum apportioned to all the districts, which gave the share of each district increased by the excess and which would be their proper quota and excess if all the districts had furnished one, two, and three years" men in the same proportion; but as that has not been done, the true quota is determined by substracting from this ascertained number the actual amount of excess which the district did furnish, thus giving credit for its years of service hitherto furnished and determining its proper share of the 300,000 men called for December 19, 1864.
In order that the different terms employed in the calculation should all be alike, the 300,000 called for was multiplied by 3; that is, reduced to years of service, so that when the excess, which had already