War of the Rebellion: Serial 125 Page 0318 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

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Indians. If we put the total number of negroes within the Confederation at 25,000 we shall probably be above rather than below the truth.

In Paraguay there are few negroes to be found. a Five thousand will, we believe, cover the amount.

They are more numerous in Uruguay. To this Republic, previous to 1842, about which time slavery was abolished, there had been brought negroes both directly from Africa and also through Southern Brazil. One writer estimates the number of negroes in Uruguay at 20,000, b and, as we find in the various works on this country no other estimate, we adopt this.

In Patagonia it would appear from the various authorities that no negroes are to be found.

Thus we have for Mexico, Central America, and South America, apart from Brazil, the following estimate:

Mexico and Central America............................... 20,000

Venezuela................................................ 60,000

New Granada.............................................. 80,000

Ecuador.................................................. 7,831

Peru..................................................... 40,000

Chili.................................................... 1,000

Bolivia.................................................. 5,000

Argentine Confederation.................................. 25,000

Paraguay................................................. 5,000

Uruguay.................................................. 20,000

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Total.................................................... 263,831

Bringing together these various results, we find an approximating estimate of the number of negroes and their descendants on the Wester Continent in the following table:

Number of negroes and their descendants in the Western Hemisphere in the year 1860.

United States........................................... 4,435,709

English, French, Dutch, Danish, and Swedish West

Indies, including Guiana............................... 1,100,000

Spanish West Indies..................................... 787,500

Island of Hayti......................................... 755,000

Empire of Brazil........................................ 4,200,500

The rest of South America and in Central America........ 263,831

Canada.................................................. 20,000

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Total...................................................11,562,54 0

The total somewhat exceeds 11,500,000; but seeing that after diligent search c we have been compelled to make up our estimates, especially for South America, from scanty materials, and desiring to put forth no argument founded on exaggerated data, and therefore not to underestimate the remnant remaining alive as descendants and representatives of the negroes brought to America from Africa, we add a quarter of a million to the sum of our estimate, and will assume the number of negroes and their descendants in the Western Hemisphere in 1860 to have been 11,812,540 souls. This is, beyond question, not an underestimate of the actual number left.

What is the conclusion, then, at which we are forced to arrive?

The 15,500,000 of poor wretches who were sentenced by the slave- trade to transportation and slavery in foreign lands are now, after three centuries of servitude, represented in these lands by less than four-fifths of their original number.

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a Historie du Paraguay, par Demersey, 1860, Tom.1, p.374. "Quelques negres, en tres petit nombre."

b Medical Topography of Brazil and Uruguay, by G. R. B. Horner, surgeon, U. S. Navy p.184.

c For the statistics of the negro population of South America alone we have examined upward of 150 volumes.

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