sometimes in a neighbor's territory; more frequently in their own. The practice is notorious."
The witness speaks of Gambia and countries adjoining. a Another mode of procuring slaves is akin to this. They are "panyared," to employ the phrase of the country; that is, kidnaped by individuals. Dr. A. Sparrman, inspector of the Royal Museum at Stockholm and a traveler in the interior of Africa, deposed: "They seize one another in the night, when they have an opportunity,a nd sometimes invite each other to their houses and there detain and sell them to the European traders. * * * The number of persons so kidnaped is considerable. He himself witnessed two instances." b
Mr. Falconbridge, a slave-trader, testifies: "On the windward coast the negroes are afraid of stirring out at night lest they be kidnaped. A woman, big with child, told his she was caught as she was returning from a neighbor's house." c
Mr. Devoynes says, speaking of the Gold Coast: "The greater part of the slaves are brought from the interior. They are sold from hand to hand, and many of them come from a great distance-it is said from 800 to 900 miles." d
The next source of supply is the selling of criminals. The universal testimony is that the chief crimes for which they are sold are adultery, theft, and witchcraft; sometimes for murder; occasionally they are sold for debt. Some stake their liberty in gambling and are sold if they lose Admiral Edwards said:
Adultery is the crime for which they are most usually sold. In this case the person offended has a claim not only to the man and woman offending, and to all their property, but also to their family and slaves. e
Theft is common among them. One witness, Mr. Dalzell, testifies that he purchased a son of his farther, who sold him to avoid the punishment which the son had incurred for stealing from a white man, which, the witness adds, "is never pardoned." This was in the Kingdom of Dahomey. e
A witness (Mr. Weaver) explained that "they understand by which craft the power of doing mischief by supernatural means." f Another witness (Mr. Matthews) testifies that having refused to purchase a man suspected of witchcraft, who was offered to him for sale "they tied a stone around his neck and threw him into the sea." g
The Rev. Mr. Baggs, chaplain to Commodore Thompson during two voyages (in 1783 and 1784), says of the African coast generally:
The revenue of the kings of the country depends on the sale of slaves. They therefore strain every nerve to accuse and condemn. Their codes of law are made subservient to the slave-trade. h
Mr. Penny deposes:
Some are made slaves in consequence of gaming, of which they are very fond. They stake themselves-first a leg, them an arm, lastly the head, and when they have lost that they surrender themselves as slaved. If a man stake and lose a leg only, he continues gambling until he has lost the whole of himself, or is cleared. g
a Report cited, Part I Sheet G.
b Lords of Council Report, Part I, Sheet G.
c Report cited, Part I, Sheet N.
d Report cited, Part I, Sheet K.
e Lords of Council Report, Part I, Sheet L.
f Report cited, part I, Sheet L.
g Report cited, Part I, Sheet I.
h Lords of Council Report, Part I, sheet N 5.