kind for the humane treatment of for the protection from outrage of the human merchandise therein stipulated to be delivered. a
The extent of these treaties and their lucrative character to the Spanish Crown may be gathered from the following:
A single Government, Spain, which assumes the name of Catholic, concluded in less than two centuries more than ten treaties to afuthorize, protect, and profit by the transportation of more than half a million of human beings. It levied on each of these human heads, reckoning them by the piece of by the ton, a tax which amounted in the aggregate to upward of 50,000,000 francs (say $10,000,000).
The above treaties were with England, France, and Portugal, the grants to individuals and to companies not being included.
In the middle of the eighteenth century the English slave-trade, which, up to that time, had been more or less of a monopoly, was thrown open. Statute 23, George II (that is, in 1750), c. 31 after reciting that the "African slave-trade is very advantages to Great Britain," enacts that "it shall be lawful for all His Majesty's subjects to trade and traffic to and from and port or place in Africa, between the port of Sallee, in South Barbary, and the Cape of Good Hope."
Great Britain, the first to abolish this infamous traffic, was previous to its abolition, the most extensively engaged in it. Her connection with it, the manner and extent to which it was conducted, together with many statistical details, imperfect indeed, but instructive as far as they go, are set forth in a ponderous folio volume, published by official authority in the year 1789, being a "Report of the Lords of the Committee of Council, appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to trade and foreign plantations, submitting to Hius Majesty's consideration the evidence and information they have collected in consequence of His Majesty's order in council, dated February 11, 1788, concerning the present state of the trade to Africa, and particularly the trade in slaves; and concerning the effects and consequences of this trade, as well in Africa and the West Indies as to the general commerce of this kingdom."
There can be no safer document than this from which to draw information such as it contains. The lords composing this committee of council gave the slave-holders the ample opportunity to state their case, both by testimony and argument. Three- fourths at least of the witnesses examined are slave-dealers, or captains of slavers. They admit also, it is true, testimony and documentary evidence (especially as to deaths of sailors on slave ships) offered by the celebrates Thomas Clarkson; but they scrupulously abstained from all opinions in regard to the slave- trade and from all recommendations or suggestions touching its abolition. In theirs volume we find two estimates as to the number of negroes then annually carried to the American colonies; the first puts it at 80,000 annually; the second, containining a detailed estimate of slaves annually sold at sixteen different points on the African coast, sums up 74,000. c of these, onehalf are said to be procured on the Gold Coast, at Bonny and New Calabar, and at Loango, Melimba, and Cabenda; about 38,000 set
a After enumerating the various assientos made by Spain, Cochin says: "Dans tous ces traites, pas disposition, pas une sullabe destinee a defendre ces malhureux contro les zbus at les souffrances" (Work cited, Vol. 2, p. 288.)
b Work cited, Vol. 2, p. 288.
c The first is contained in the testimony of Mr. Penny (Report, Part I, Sheet I); the second in that of Mr. Norris (Report, Part I, Sheet K). The table, in detail, is given, Part IV, Numbers 14. The volume not being paged as to a single brief document contained in it, to wit, Minutes of Evidence before a Committee of the Whole House), more exact references cannot be given.h