War of the Rebellion: Serial 125 Page 0063 UNION AUTHORITIES.

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offers, all of the officers and enlisted men should be instructed at each of the different kinds of gun at the post, as well as in the duties of all the numbers at each gun. Every night at retreat or tattoo the men who are to man the guns in case of a night attack should be paraded at their pieces and inspected, to see that all their equipments, implements, and ammunition are in good order, and the guns in serviceable condition and easy working order. The men so stationed should "call off" their numbers before being dismissed. In case of alarm at night all should repair at once to their posts, equip themselves, and await orders, without losing time by forming upon their company or battalion parade grounds.

13. Each gun should be under charge of a non-commissioned officer, and to every two or three guns should be assigned a lieutenant, who will be responsible to the captain for their serviceable condition at all times. The captain will be responsible to the commanding officer for the condition of the pieces and the instruction of the men of his company. Artillery drills will be frequent until all of the men are well instructed, and there will never be less than one artillery drill per day when the weather will permit, nor will any officer be excused from these drills unless it is unavoidable. For action, all the cannoneers not actually serving the guns will be provided with muskets, and will be stationed near the guns to which they belong, for service on the banquettes or elsewhere, in case of assaults.

14. Each company should be supplied with three copies of the Tactics for Heavy Artillery, and rigidly adhere to its directions. Tables of ranges will be found in the work. One copy of Instructions for Field Artillery should be supplied to each company. All authorized books can be obtained on written application to the chief of artillery, who will obtain them from the Adjutant-General of the Army. The books so drawn are the property of the United States for the use of the company, and will be accounted for on the muster-rolls.

15. The commanding officer will make himself conversant with the approaches to his work, the distance to each prominent point commanded by his guns, the nature of the ground between them and his post, and the most probable points of attack upon it. He will also make it his duty to see that all of his officers, and, as far as possible, his non-commissioned officers, are thoroughly acquainted with these matters. The distances will be ascertained by actual measurement and not left to conjecture. Tables of ranges or distances for each point, and the corresponding elevation, according to the nature of the projectile, with the proper length or time of the fuse, when shell or case-shot are used, will be made out for each gun and furnished to the officer and non-commissioned officers serving it. These tables should be painted upon boards and securely fastened in a conspicuous place near the gunn. As these tables differ for different kinds of gun, the same men should be permanently assigned to the same piece.

16. The projectiles should be used in their proper order. At a distance, solid shot; then, shells or case-shot, especially if firing at troops in line; canister or grape is for use only at short ranges. When columns are approaching so that they can be taken in direction of their length, or very obliquely, solid shot is generally the best projectile, because of its greater accuracy and penetrating power. If the column consists of cavalry, some shells or case-shot will be useful, from the disorder their bursting produces among the horses; but shells and case-shot should not be used against any troops when moving rapidly.