War of the Rebellion: Serial 124 Page 1047 UNION AUTHORITIES.

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that the officers of the General Government should, in executing the law, secure the co-operation of the State officers, and should act in harmony with them. To secure this end, officers of the Army, carefully selected and under suitable special instructions, were detailed to act as provost-marshals-general of States, and directed to take posts at State capitals. This arrangement was necessary, also, to relieve this office from the burden of direct correspondence with all the district provost- marshals, and to provide an official in each State to whom reference could conveniently be had for such information as might be beyond the power of the district provost-marshals to afford.

THE ENROLLMENT.

The object of the enrollment was twofold: First, to ascertain how many men liable to military service there were on the 1st of July last in the United States; and, secondly, to provide the means to establish between the Government and each district an account of military service, in which a charge should be made of all that was due, and credit given for all that was or should be paid. No such system has heretofore been adopted; under it every citizen may be called upon to do his proper share of military duty, with a certain knowledge that it will be duly credited to him. It would seem that no arrangement could be more satisfactory to all who are willing to do their share in defense of their country.

The enrollment was commenced about the 25th of May. It proceeded rapidly in all the States except Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Oregon, and California, and drafts were ordered as fast as districts were enrolled and quotas could be computed and assigned. In the States referred to above the enrollment was not commenced until after the others, on account of difficulty in selecting the necessary officers.

It was conducted with industry and care. It is believed that the errors which must necessarily occur in such an undertaking are comparatively few. Its imperfections arise from the fact that questions of alienage, physical disability, & c., could not be decided by enrolling officers, but were left to the decision of the boards. The conduct of persons desiring to evade the draft tended to aggravate the difficulty. My report to you dated August 10, to which reference is had, gives details of the measures taken to make the enrollment correct.

The opposition encountered in making the enrollment cannot be said to have been serious. Some of the enrolling officers were mal-treated and one or two assassinated; but prompt action on the part of the civil authorities, aided, when necessary, by military patrols, effected the arrest of guilty parties and checked these outrages.

In certain mining districts in Pennsylvania organized bodies of miners for a time opposed the enrollment, but the measures thereupon adopted by the U. S. authorities overcame their opposition.

Persons arrested for violation of the twenty-fifth section of the enrollment act, or on account of obstructing the enrollment, have been turned over to the proper civil authorities for trial.

Great labor and difficulty have been experienced in the attempt to equalize between the districts of the several States the number of troops already furnished and those to be furnished. The quotas under which troops had been raised in 1861 and 1862 were based upon population, and without reference to equalizing the numbers called for among districts or towns. Much was left to individual enterprise,