1862, is over and above its quota of all calls for volunteers previous to the conscription act.
To relieve any side that the discrepancies I have shown are occasioned by differences of population between the city and the country, I am fortunately able to contrast the enrollment and draft for New York with those for Philadelphia, the next largest city in the Union. In Philadelphia the enrollment for the first class is 59,634, being 9.5 per cent. of the population, and in New York 127,894, being slightly over 15.6 per cent. The difference against New York is more than 6 per cent. This proves that if the enrollment in Philadelphia is correct, then the enrollment in New York is 50 per cent. too large. Upon the vote of last fall the draft in Philadelphia is one to every four voters, and in New York one to every three. This extra imposition upon New York is in spite of the fact that an allowance is made to New York for an excess of volunteers, while Philadelphia is entitled to no allowance of the kind.
The comparisons above made are not so unfavorable to those by whom the enrollment was controlled as to prove intentional wrong. The discrepancies might, in charity, be ascribed to the greater incompetency, carelessness, and oversell of some of the enrolling officers compared with others. I regret to be compelled to say that the real truth of the case is so bad as to be inconsistent with any other conclusion than that of intentional fraud, as I will prove most conclusively.
Neither the census returns of the whole population nor of the number of males from twenty to forty-five years of age is a correct basis for an estimate of the number of persons in New York and Brooklyn liable to enrollment under the conscription act. In the process of demonstration which I now propose it is important, first, to correct two erroneous impressions.
Contrary to the popular belief, the census returns show that in the State of New York, in the cities, there is a greater number of females than of males, and in the agricultural counties a greater number of males than of females. There are sixty counties in the State. In twenty of these there are more females than males. In only four of the twenty does the excess of females amount to 1,000, and those four include the cities of New York, Brooklyn, Albany, and Troy. In New York the excess of females is 18,000.
There is a like error prevailing in respect to the comparative numbers of males of middle age in the city and in the country. In the city of New York the male inhabitants from twenty to thirty- five years of age are 14.1 per cent. of its whole population and in the rest of the State the males from twenty to thirty-five years of age are 15,7 per cent. of the whole population.
Having shown that it is not true in either of the two respects in which it is generally supposed to be that the number of persons liable to service under the conscription act is proportionately larger in the city than in the country, I now state a reason whey the proportion of persons liable to conscription is much smaller in the city than in the country. It is the comparatively greater number of aliens in the city. More than one-third of the inhabitants of the city of New York are aliens by birth, and a large portion of these, even of the males, are not naturalized. In no other county in the State is the proportion as large, though it is very large in Kings and Alabany, and large in some others. The aliens are enrolled all over the State, and if care