General Hooker succeeded too the command, and it was not until the beginning of May that offensive operations were resumed by the Army of the Potomac. Then it crossed the Rappahannock, turning the flank of the rebel army, but in the sanguinary battle of Chancellorsville the fortune of war was against it. The heights of Fredericksburg were captured by General Sedgwick's corps, but the whole army retired to the north bank of the Rappahannock and returned to its winter camps.
By a rapid and skillful march General Lee, in the latter part of May and in the month of June, withdrew his army from General Hooker's front, and, ascending the south bank of the Rapidan and Rappahannock, entered the Valley of the Shenandoah and once morel tempted the fortune of war by invading the loyal States. A severe the Army of the Potomac broke up its camps and marched to meet him.
The two armies met at Gettysburg, in Pennsylvania, and after a battle of three days" duration, with terrible slaughter on both sides, the rebel army recoiled from the position held by General Made, who had succeeded General Hooker in command, and retreated to the Potomac. It was followed by made, who, deceived as to the state of the river, which he supposed unformdable, too long delayed his attack. General Lee, partly by a hastily constructed bridge and partly by fording the story, which had fallen rapidly, succeeded in withdrawing his army and most of his artillery to the south bank.
Much of his baggage was captured or destroyed in his retreat by our cavalry, and much of the plunder which he had collected was thrown out of his wagons to make room for the wounded whom he carried off the field. Our troops buried 4,500 of the enemy left upon the field. The victims of the first day's fight had been buried by their comrades.
This invasion probably coasted, prisoners, deserters, and stragglers 40,000 men. Our loss was severe. Thus e ded the second invasion. General Made had crossed the Potomac, advanced into Virginia, and the campaign of last fall is repeating itself, the two armies occupying now very nearly the positions of November.
Upon the defeat and retreat of the army of General Lee and the surrender of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, General Rosecrans advanced upon the rebel army under General Bragg and drove them with little fighting from their fortified position at Shelbyville and Tullahoma, in Southern Tennessee. He now occupies these positions, while the army under General Bragg has, after great suffering and loss, fallen back to Chattanooga and the line of the Tennessee River. The feeble resistance made to Rosecrans" advance shows that Bragg's army must have been much reduced in the unsuccessful effort to enable Johnston in Mississippi to raise the siege of Vicksburg.
This review shows that no great progress southward has been made during the year on our eastern lines. The opposing armies on the Potomac have been too equally matched to gain very great advantages over each other, and the necessity of covering Washington, the capital, against all contingencies has constantly restrained our commanders and forbidden those bold and dangerous movements which, venturing much, alone conduce to great military successes.
In the West some 50,000 square miles of revolted territory have been recovered by the campaign, and the accompanying map, prepared at