War of the Rebellion: Serial 124 Page 0448 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

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charge of a residency, and that it pay the salaries of the necessary teachers until the freedmen's schools become self- supporting.

As to these matters it should be made the duty of the department superintendent specially to report.

Meanwhile the Government should afford transportation to any religious or secular teachers who are duly accredited by respectable societies and supported, in whole or in part, from the funds of such societies.

As a general rule the refugees will probably sooner be able to pay their clergymen than to provide the requisite number of teachers for their children. The freedmen of New Berne have recently invited a private of the Forty-third Massachusetts Volunteers, named Edward Fitz, of the Methodist persuasion and having a license to preach, to become their pastor, at a salary of $ 1,000 a year.

The organization proposed will be incomplete in these parts of the superintendencies here spoken of, in which the ordinary courts of justice are suspended, unless temporary provision be made for a magistracy, through whose action these people may learn the important lesson that the obedience which, as slaves, they paid to the will of a master, must now be rendered by them as freedmen to established law, care being taken not to encourage them to become litigious. In this view the Commission recommend that wherever, throughout the superintendencies aforesaid, justices of the peace and circuit and other judges have ceased to hold their sessions a provost-judge, if he be not already appointed, should be. The lack of such an officer at Port Royal is very much felt.

They further recommend that the proper department superintendent be vested with authority to bring to conciliation and settlement all difficulties arising between freedmen, except where resort to a provost-judge or other legal tribunal becomes necessary. Where a case of difficulty occurring between a freedman and a white man goes before a provost-marshal or provost-judge, or before any regularly established legal tribunal, it should be made the duty of the department superintendent so far to act as friend and adviser for the freedman as to see to it that his case is fairly presented and tried, and to this end, in important cases, where necessary, to employ legal counsel. In all these cases the department superintendent should give such counsel and advice as shall tend to justice between the parties, acting in person when practicable, but, if necessary, he may be allowed to appoint the appropriate resident superintendent to act for him as deputy during his absence in the settlement of minor cases.

It should be specially recommended to the department superintendent, in the settlement of all personal difficulties between these people, to act as arbitrator rather than as formal judge, adopting the general principles governing courts of conciliation. And it is confidently believed by the Commission that if he shall succeed in gaining the confidence of the freedmen under his charge he will, with rare exceptions, be able amicably and satisfactorily to adjust such difficulties without further resort to law.

As to the mode of appointment of superintendents and employes above proposed, the Commission suggests as follows:

That the department superintendents be appointed by the Secretary of War.

That the resident superintendents and assistant superintendents be nominated to the superintendent-general by the respective department superintendents for confirmation or rejection.