the enemy, if captured, is not entitled to the privileges of the prisoner of war, and may be dealt with according to the circumstance of the case.
101. While deception in war is admitted as a just and necessary means of hostility, and is consistent with Honorable warfare, the common law of war allows even capital punishment for clandestine or treacherous attempts to injure an enemy, because they are so dangerous, and it is so difficult to guard against them.
102. The law of war, like the criminal law regarding other offenses, makes no deference he difference of sexes, concerning the spy, the war-traitor, or the war-rebel.
103. Spies, war-traitors, and war-rebels are not exchanged according to the common law of war. The exchanged of such persons would require a special cartel, authorized by the Government, or, at a great distance from it, by the chief commander of the army in the field.
104. A successful spy or war-traitor, safely returned to his own army, and afterward captured as an enemy, is not subject to punishment for his acts as a spy or war-traitor, but he may be held in closer custody as a person individually dangerous.
SECTION VI.-Exchange of prisoners-Flags of truce--Flags of protection.
105. Exchanges of prisoners take place--number for number--rank for rank--wounded for wounded--with added condition for added condition--such, for instance, as not to serve for a certain period.
106. In exchanging prisoners of war, such numbers of persons of inferior rank may be substituted as an equivalent for one superior rank as may be agreed upon by cartel, which requires the sanction of the Government, or of the commander of the army in the field.
107. A prisoner of war is in honor bound truly to state to the captor his rank; and he is not to assume a lower rank than belongs to him, in order to cause a more advantageous exchange, nor a higher rank, for the purpose of obtaining better treatment.
Offenses to the contrary have been justly punished by the commanders of released prisoners, and may be good cause for refusing to release such prisoners.
108. The surplus number of prisoners of war remaining after an exchange has taken place is sometimes released either for the payment of a stipulated sum of money, or, in urgent cases, of provision, clothing, or other necessaries.
Such arrangement, however, requires the sanction of the highest authority.
109. The exchange of prisoners of war is an act of convenience to both belligerent. If no general care has been concluded, it cannot be demanded by either of them. No belligerent is obliged to exchange prisoners of war.
A cartel is voidable as soon as either party has violated it.
110. No exchange of prisoners shall be made except after complete capture, and after an accurate account of them, and a list of the captured officers, has been taken.
111. The bearer of a flag of truce cannot insist upon being admitted. He must always be admitted wit great caution. Unnecessary frequency is carefully to the avoided.
112. If the bearer of a flag of truce offer himself during an engagement, he can be admitted as a very rare exception only. It is no breach of good faith to retain such flag of truce, if admitted during